Archive for the ‘exercise and fitness’ Category

Vital Signs: Walking Among Adults — United States, 2005 and 2010

August 13, 2012 Comments off

Vital Signs: Walking Among Adults — United States, 2005 and 2010
Source: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (CDC)

Background: Physical activity has numerous health benefits, including improving weight management. The 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans recommend ≥150 minutes/week of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity (e.g., brisk walking) for substantial health benefits. Walking is the most commonly reported physical activity by U.S. adults.

Methods: CDC used data from the 2005 and 2010 National Health Interview Surveys to assess changes in prevalence of walking (defined as walking for transportation or leisure in at least one bout of 10 minutes or more in the preceding 7 days) by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, education, body mass index category, walking assistance status, region, and physician-diagnosed chronic disease. CDC also assessed the association between walking and meeting the aerobic physical activity guideline.

Results: Overall, walking prevalence increased significantly from 55.7% in 2005 to 62.0% in 2010. Significantly higher walking prevalence was observed in most demographic and health characteristic categories examined. In 2010, the adjusted odds ratio of meeting the aerobic physical activity guideline among walkers, compared with non-walkers, was 2.95 (95% confidence interval = 2.73–3.19).

Conclusions and Implications for Public Health Practice: To sustain increases in the prevalence of walking, communities can implement evidence-based strategies such as creating or enhancing access to places for physical activity, or using design and land use policies and practices that emphasize mixed-use communities and pedestrian-friendly streets. The impact of these strategies on both walking and physical activity should be monitored systematically at the national, state, and local levels. Public health efforts to promote walking as a way to meet physical activity guidelines can help improve the health of U.S. residents.

Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide: an analysis of burden of disease and life expectancy

July 19, 2012 Comments off

Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide: an analysis of burden of disease and life expectancy

Source: The Lancet


Strong evidence shows that physical inactivity increases the risk of many adverse health conditions, including major non-communicable diseases such as coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and breast and colon cancers, and shortens life expectancy. Because much of the world’s population is inactive, this link presents a major public health issue. We aimed to quantify the effect of physical inactivity on these major non-communicable diseases by estimating how much disease could be averted if inactive people were to become active and to estimate gain in life expectancy at the population level.


For our analysis of burden of disease, we calculated population attributable fractions (PAFs) associated with physical inactivity using conservative assumptions for each of the major non-communicable diseases, by country, to estimate how much disease could be averted if physical inactivity were eliminated. We used life-table analysis to estimate gains in life expectancy of the population.


Worldwide, we estimate that physical inactivity causes 6% (ranging from 3·2% in southeast Asia to 7·8% in the eastern Mediterranean region) of the burden of disease from coronary heart disease, 7% (3·9—9·6) of type 2 diabetes, 10% (5·6—14·1) of breast cancer, and 10% (5·7—13·8) of colon cancer. Inactivity causes 9% (range 5·1—12·5) of premature mortality, or more than 5·3 million of the 57 million deaths that occurred worldwide in 2008. If inactivity were not eliminated, but decreased instead by 10% or 25%, more than 533 000 and more than 1·3 million deaths, respectively, could be averted every year. We estimated that elimination of physical inactivity would increase the life expectancy of the world’s population by 0·68 (range 0·41—0·95) years.


Physical inactivity has a major health effect worldwide. Decrease in or removal of this unhealthy behaviour could improve health substantially.



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Global physical activity levels: surveillance progress, pitfalls, and prospects

July 19, 2012 Comments off

Global physical activity levels: surveillance progress, pitfalls, and prospects

Source: The Lancet

To implement effective non-communicable disease prevention programmes, policy makers need data for physical activity levels and trends. In this report, we describe physical activity levels worldwide with data for adults (15 years or older) from 122 countries and for adolescents (13—15-years-old) from 105 countries. Worldwide, 31·1% (95% CI 30·9—31·2) of adults are physically inactive, with proportions ranging from 17·0% (16·8—17·2) in southeast Asia to about 43% in the Americas and the eastern Mediterranean. Inactivity rises with age, is higher in women than in men, and is increased in high-income countries. The proportion of 13—15-year-olds doing fewer than 60 min of physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity per day is 80·3% (80·1—80·5); boys are more active than are girls. Continued improvement in monitoring of physical activity would help to guide development of policies and programmes to increase activity levels and to reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases.

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Sedentary behaviour and life expectancy in the USA: a cause-deleted life table analysis

July 13, 2012 Comments off

Sedentary behaviour and life expectancy in the USA: a cause-deleted life table analysis

Source: British Medical Journal (open)


To determine the impact of sitting and television viewing on life expectancy in the USA.


Prevalence-based cause-deleted life table analysis.


Summary RRs of all-cause mortality associated with sitting and television viewing were obtained from a meta-analysis of available prospective cohort studies. Prevalences of sitting and television viewing were obtained from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

Primary outcome measure

Life expectancy at birth.


The estimated gains in life expectancy in the US population were 2.00 years for reducing excessive sitting to <3 h/day and a gain of 1.38 years from reducing excessive television viewing to <2 h/day. The lower and upper limits from a sensitivity analysis that involved simultaneously varying the estimates of RR (using the upper and lower bounds of the 95% CI) and the prevalence of television viewing (±20%) were 1.39 and 2.69 years for sitting and 0.48 and 2.51 years for television viewing, respectively.


Reducing sedentary behaviours such as sitting and television viewing may have the potential to increase life expectancy in the USA.

Factors Influencing the Implementation of School Wellness Policies in the United States, 2009

July 1, 2012 Comments off

Factors Influencing the Implementation of School Wellness Policies in the United States, 2009
Source: Preventing Chronic Disease (CDC)

The quality of school wellness policy implementation varies among schools in the United States. The objective of this study was to characterize the school wellness policy environment nationally and identify factors influencing the quality and effectiveness of policy implementation.

We invited school administrators from 300 high schools to complete a questionnaire; 112 administrators responded. We performed a 2-step cluster analysis to help identify factors influencing the implementation of school wellness policies.

Eighty-two percent of schools reported making staff aware of policy requirements; 77% established a wellness committee or task force, 73% developed administrative procedures, and 56% trained staff for policy implementation. Most commonly reported challenges to implementation were lack of time or coordination of policy team (37% of respondents) and lack of monetary resources (33%). The core domains least likely to be implemented were communication and promotion (63% of respondents) and evaluation (54%). Cluster 1, represented mostly by schools that have taken action toward implementing policies, had higher implementation and effectiveness ratings than Cluster 2, which was defined by taking fewer actions toward policy implementation. In Cluster 1, accountability was also associated with high ratings of implementation quality and effectiveness.

The development of organizational capacity may be critical to ensuring an environment that promotes high-quality policy implementation. Assessing, preventing, and addressing challenges; establishing clear definitions and goals; and requiring accountability for enacting policy across all core domains are critical to ensuring high-quality implementation.

Adverse Metabolic Response to Regular Exercise: Is It a Rare or Common Occurrence?

June 12, 2012 Comments off

Adverse Metabolic Response to Regular Exercise: Is It a Rare or Common Occurrence?
Source: PLoS ONE

Individuals differ in the response to regular exercise. Whether there are people who experience adverse changes in cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors has never been addressed.

Methodology/Principal Findings
An adverse response is defined as an exercise-induced change that worsens a risk factor beyond measurement error and expected day-to-day variation. Sixty subjects were measured three times over a period of three weeks, and variation in resting systolic blood pressure (SBP) and in fasting plasma HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), and insulin (FI) was quantified.1 The technical error (TE) defined as the within-subject standard deviation derived from these measurements was computed. An adverse response for a given risk factor was defined as a change that was at least two TEs away from no change but in an adverse direction. Thus an adverse response was recorded if an increase reached 10 mm Hg or more for SBP, 0.42 mmol/L or more for TG, or 24 pmol/L or more for FI or if a decrease reached 0.12 mmol/L or more for HDL-C. Completers from six exercise studies were used in the present analysis: Whites (N = 473) and Blacks (N = 250) from the HERITAGE Family Study; Whites and Blacks from DREW (N = 326), from INFLAME (N = 70), and from STRRIDE (N = 303); and Whites from a University of Maryland cohort (N = 160) and from a University of Jyvaskyla study (N = 105), for a total of 1,687 men and women. Using the above definitions, 126 subjects (8.4%) had an adverse change in FI. Numbers of adverse responders reached 12.2% for SBP, 10.4% for TG, and 13.3% for HDL-C. About 7% of participants experienced adverse responses in two or more risk factors.

Adverse responses to regular exercise in cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors occur. Identifying the predictors of such unwarranted responses and how to prevent them will provide the foundation for personalized exercise prescription.

Backgrounder — Tai Chi: An Introduction

June 4, 2012 Comments off

Tai Chi: An Introduction
Source: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM)

Tai chi, which originated in China as a martial art, is a mind-body practice in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Tai chi is sometimes referred to as “moving meditation”—practitioners move their bodies slowly, gently, and with awareness, while breathing deeply. This Backgrounder provides a general overview of tai chi and suggests sources for additional information.

New From the GAO

March 19, 2012 Comments off

New GAO ReportsSource: Government Accountability Office

1. K-12 Education: School-Based Physical Education and Sports Programs. GAO-12-350, February 29.
Highlights –

2. Defined Benefit Pension Plans: Recent Developments Highlight Challenges of Hedge Fund and Private Equity Investing. GAO-12-324, February 16.
Highlights –

3. Electronic Waste: Actions Needed to Provide Assurance That Used Federal Electronics Are Disposed of in an Environmentally Responsible Manner. GAO-12-74, February 17.
Highlights –

Public Health Benefit of Active Video Games Is Not Clear-Cut

March 4, 2012 Comments off

Public Health Benefit of Active Video Games Is Not Clear-Cut
Source: American Academy of Pediatrics

Simply giving a child an “active” video game will not necessarily increase his or her physical activity, according to the study, “Impact of an Active Video Game on Healthy Children’s Physical Activity,” in the March 2012 Pediatrics (published online Feb. 27). Researchers gave 87 children a game console, and either two “active” video games or two “inactive” games. Examples of active games include those in which players dance or use their bodies to simulate bowling. The children kept a log of their play times, and their activity levels were measured over a 12-week period using an accelerometer (a device that measures acceleration and exertion). The children who were given active games were not more physically active than those given inactive games.

The authors note that children have played active video games with moderate to vigorous physical activity in laboratory settings, but that did not translate to “real life.” They theorize that the children either did not elect to play the active games at the same level of intensity as in the lab, or they chose to be less active at other times of the day. However, providing explicit instructions to use the active games appeared to lead to increased physical activity, which could make the games useful as part of interventions that prescribe using the games for a set amount of time.

+ Full Paper (PDF)

Associations Between Sociodemographic Characteristics and Perceptions of the Built Environment With the Frequency, Type, and Duration of Physical Activity Among Trail Users

February 27, 2012 Comments off
Rail trails are elements of the built environment that support the Task Force on Community Preventive Services’ recommendation to create, or enhance access to, places for physical activity (PA). The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between sociodemographic characteristics and perceptions of the built environment with the frequency, type, and duration of PA among users of an urban, paved rail trail segment.
Interviewers conducted intercept surveys with 431 rail trail users and analyzed data by using logistic regression to estimate odds ratios between sociodemographic characteristics and perceptions of the built environment on the frequency, type, and duration of PA performed on the trail.
Adults who used the trail in the cool months, traveled to the trail by a motorized vehicle, used the trail with others, and had some graduate school education visited the trail less often. Younger adults, men, whites, and those with some graduate school education were more likely to engage in vigorous activities on the trail. Adults who traveled to the trail by a motorized vehicle spent more time engaged in PA on the trail.
Our results suggest that the most frequent users of a rail trail for PA are those who use the trail alone and travel to the trail by bicycle or on foot. Trails are an aspect of the built environment that supports active lifestyles, and future studies should evaluate different types of trails among more diverse populations and locations.

Trends in Adults Receiving a Recommendation for Exercise or Other Physical Activity From a Physician or Other Health Professional

February 17, 2012 Comments off

Trends in Adults Receiving a Recommendation for Exercise or Other Physical Activity From a Physician or Other Health Professional
Source: National Center for Health Statistics

Key findings
Data from the National Health Interview Survey, 2000, 2005, and 2010

  • In 2010, about one in three adults (32.4%) who had seen a physician or other health professional in the past 12 months had been advised to begin or continue to do exercise or physical activity.
  • Between 2000 and 2010, the percentage of adults receiving advice to exercise increased by about 10 percentage points.
  • Among adults aged 85 and over, the percentage receiving advice to exercise nearly doubled between 2000 (15.3%) and 2010 (28.9%).
  • Receiving advice to exercise increased for adults with hypertension, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes.
  • Adults who were overweight or obese had the largest percentage point increases over the decade 2000–2010 in being advised to exercise.

Special Issue of Childhood Obesity Journal Celebrates 2nd Anniversary of Let’s Move! Initiative With Foreword by First Lady Michelle Obama

February 11, 2012 Comments off

Special Issue of Childhood Obesity Journal Celebrates 2nd Anniversary of Let’s Move! Initiative With Foreword by First Lady Michelle Obama

Source: Childhood Obesity
Publisher Mary Ann Liebert released a special issue of the journal Childhood Obesity celebrating the second anniversary of First Lady Michelle Obama’s Let’s Move! initiative, with a special Foreword by Mrs. Obama. The issue has a wide range of insightful contributions from leaders in the fight against childhood obesity including Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack, NFL quarterback Drew Brees, Stephen Daniels, MD, PhD, Sandra Hassink, MD, Elsie Taveras, MD, MPH, Margo Wootan, DSc, and Editor-in-Chief David Katz, MD, MPH. The issue is available free online.

Addressing Nutrition, Overweight and Obesity Among Latino Youth

January 1, 2012 Comments off

Addressing Nutrition, Overweight and Obesity Among Latino Youth (PDF)
Source: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

Latino youth are more likely to be overweight or obese than their white peers. According to current estimates, more than 38 percent of Latino youth ages 2-19 in the United States are overweight and almost 21 percent are obese. The higher prevalence of overweight and obesity among Latino youth places them at greater risk for developing health and psychological problems such as cardiovascular disease, asthma, type 2 diabetes, liver disease, sleep apnea, depression, anxiety and psychological stress.

These negative effects on Latino youth—and the nation as a whole—cannot be understated, as Latinos currently represent the most populous and fastest growing ethnic minority in the United States. In 2010, the 50.5 million Latinos in the United States comprised 16 percent of the total population—a figure that grew by 43 percent between 2000 and 2010.

In the coming years, the negative effects felt in this large minority population will likely ripple through the health of the nation as a whole, resulting in greater health care expenditures, higher disability rates, lost work productivity, stunted economic growth, and perhaps even threats to national security.

A complex interplay of environmental, socioeconomic and cultural factors contributes to the higher rates of overweight and obesity among Latino youth. The modern urban environment, replete with convenience stores and fast-food restaurants, has provided easy access to generally unhealthy foods and beverages while not always providing access to healthy ones. This imbalance is further driven by the fact that calories tend to be cheaper in unhealthy foods than in healthy ones.

Low rates of physical activity also contribute to this imbalance. Studying this epidemic in the Latino population entails an additional challenge, since the word “Latino” encompasses more than one culture. Latinos come from many different countries and have adapted to American culture to varying degrees. These differences may be among the factors that account for variation in obesity among Latino youth. To fully appreciate the scope of the problem and counteract the growing tide of overweight and obesity among Latino youth, we need a clear understanding of the factors underlying the phenomenon.

This research brief examines the environmental, socioeconomic and cultural factors that influence nutrition, overweight and obesity among Latino youth.

Air Quality and Exercise-Related Health Benefits from Reduced Car Travel in the Midwestern United States

December 21, 2011 Comments off
Source:  Environmental Health Perspectives

Automobile exhaust contains precursors to ozone and fine particulate matter, posing health risks. Dependency on car commuting also reduces physical fitness opportunities.
To quantify benefits from reducing automobile usage for short urban and suburban trips.
We simulated census-tract level changes in hourly pollutant concentrations from the elimination of automobile round trips ≤ 8 kilometers in 11 metropolitan areas in the Upper Midwestern U.S. using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model. Next, we estimated annual changes in health outcomes and monetary costs expected from pollution changes using EPA’s Benefits Mapping Analysis Program (BenMAP). In addition, we used WHO’s Health Economic Assessment Tool (HEAT) to calculate benefits of increased physical activity if 50% of short trips were made by bicycle.
We estimate that annual average urban PM2.5 would decline by 0.1 µg/m3 and that summer O3 would increase slightly in cities but decline regionally, resulting in net health benefits of $3.5 billion/year (95% CI: $0.4–$9.8 billion), with 25% of PM2.5 and most O3 benefits to populations outside metropolitan areas. Across the study region of approximately 31.3 million people and 37,000 total square miles, mortality would decline by approximately 1,100 deaths/year (95% CI: 856 – 1,346) due to improved air quality and increased exercise. Making 50% of short trips by bicycle would yield savings of approximately $3.8 billion/year from avoided mortality and reduced health care costs (95% CI: $2.7 – $5.0 billion). We estimate that the combined benefits of improved air quality and physical fitness would exceed $7 billion/year.
Our findings suggest that significant health and economic benefits are possible if bicycling replaces short car trips. Less auto dependence in urban areas would also improve health in downwind rural settings.

Full Paper (PDF)

State-Specific Prevalence of No Leisure-Time Physical Activity Among Adults With and Without Doctor-Diagnosed Arthritis — United States, 2009

December 10, 2011 Comments off

State-Specific Prevalence of No Leisure-Time Physical Activity Among Adults With and Without Doctor-Diagnosed Arthritis — United States, 2009
Source: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (CDC)

The prevalence of no leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) among U.S. residents decreased from 31% in 1989 to 25% in 2002 and was still at 25% in 2008, based on Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data. Further reduction in the prevalence of no LTPA among all adults might be hindered by population subgroups that have exceptionally high rates of no LTPA, such as adults with arthritis. Approximately 50 million adults have arthritis, the majority of whom have arthritis-specific barriers to being physically active, such as pain and fear of making their arthritis worse (1,2). Despite the known benefits of physical activity for arthritis (e.g., reduced pain), persons with arthritis are more likely to report no LTPA (3–5). To assess state-specific prevalence of no LTPA among adults with and without doctor-diagnosed arthritis, CDC analyzed BRFSS data from 2009. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which found that among adults with arthritis 1) prevalence of no LTPA is significantly higher compared with adults without arthritis in every state and the District of Columbia (DC), 2) the disparity in prevalence of no LTPA between adults with and without arthritis is large (median: 53% disparity gap), 3) 23 (45%) states had an age-standardized prevalence of no LTPA ≥30.0%, and 4) adults with arthritis reporting no LTPA comprised a substantial proportion (median: 35.2%) of all adults reporting no LTPA in each state. To reduce the prevalence of no LTPA among all adults, physical activity promotion initiatives should include interventions such as targeted health communication campaigns and community-based group exercise programs proven safe and effective for adults with arthritis.

Physical Activity Attenuates the Influence of FTO Variants on Obesity Risk: A Meta-Analysis of 218,166 Adults and 19,268 Children

November 28, 2011 Comments off

Physical Activity Attenuates the Influence of FTO Variants on Obesity Risk: A Meta-Analysis of 218,166 Adults and 19,268 Children
Source: PLoS Medicine

Two in three Americans are overweight, of whom half are obese, and the trend towards increasing obesity is now seen across developed and developing countries. There has long been interest in understanding the impact of genes and environment when it comes to apportioning responsibility for obesity. Carrying a change in the FTO gene is common (found in three-quarters of Europeans and North Americans) and is associated with a 20%–30% increased risk of obesity. Some overweight or obese individuals may feel that the dice are loaded and there is little point in fighting the fat; it has been reported that those made aware of their genetic susceptibility to obesity may still choose a poor diet. A similar fatalism may occur when overweight and obese people consider physical activity. But disentangling the influence of physical activity on those genetically susceptible to obesity from other factors that might impact weight is not straightforward, as it requires large sample sizes, could be subject to publication bias, and may rely on less than ideal self-reporting methods.

Why Was This Study Done?
The public health ramifications of understanding the interaction between genetic susceptibility to obesity and physical activity are considerable. Tackling the rising prevalence of obesity will inevitably include interventions principally aimed at changing dietary intake and/or increasing physical activity, but the evidence for these with regards to those genetically susceptible has been lacking to date. The authors of this paper set out to explore the interaction between the commonest genetic susceptibility trait and physical activity using a rigorous meta-analysis of a large number of studies.

What Did the Researchers Do and Find?
The authors were concerned that a meta-analysis of published studies would be limited both by the data available to them and by possible bias. Instead of this more widely used approach, they took the literature search as their starting point, identified other studies through their collaborators’ network, and then undertook a meta-analysis of all available studies using a new and standardized analysis plan. This entailed an extremely large number of authors mining their data afresh to extract the relevant data points to enable such a meta-analysis. Physical activity was identified in the original studies in many different ways, including by self-report or by using an external measure of activity or heart rate. In order to perform the meta-analysis, participants were labeled as physically active or inactive in each study. For studies that had used a continuous scale, the authors decided that the bottom 20% of the participants were inactive (10% for children and adolescents). Using data from over 218,000 adults, the authors found that carrying a copy of the susceptibility gene increased the odds of obesity by 1.23-fold. But the size of this influence was 27% less in the genetically susceptible adults who were physically active (1.22-fold) compared to those who were physically inactive (1.30-fold). In a smaller study of about 19,000 children, no such effect of physical activity was seen.

What Do these Findings Mean?
This study demonstrates that people who carry the susceptibility gene for obesity can benefit from physical activity. This should inform health care professionals and the wider public that the view of genetically determined obesity not being amenable to exercise is incorrect and should be challenged. Dissemination, implementation, and ensuring uptake of effective physical activity programs remains a challenge and deserves further consideration. That the researchers treated “physically active” as a yes/no category, and how they categorized individuals, could be criticized, but this was done for pragmatic reasons, as a variety of means of assessing physical activity were used across the studies. It is unlikely that the findings would have changed if the authors had used a different method of defining physically active. Most of the studies included in the meta-analysis looked at one time point only; information about the influence of physical activity on weight changes over time in genetically susceptible individuals is only beginning to emerge.

Effect of Neuromuscular Warm-up on Injuries in Female Soccer and Basketball Athletes in Urban Public High Schools

November 9, 2011 Comments off

Effect of Neuromuscular Warm-up on Injuries in Female Soccer and Basketball Athletes in Urban Public High Schools
Source: Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine

Objective  To determine the effectiveness of coach-led neuromuscular warm-up on reducing lower extremity (LE) injuries in female athletes in a mixed-ethnicity, predominantly low-income, urban population.

Design  Cluster randomized controlled trial.

Setting  Chicago public high schools.

Participants  Of 258 coaches invited to participate, 95 (36.8%) enrolled (1558 athletes). Ninety coaches and 1492 athletes completed the study.

Interventions  We randomized schools to intervention and control groups. We trained intervention coaches to implement a 20-minute neuromuscular warm-up. Control coaches used their usual warm-up.

Main Outcome Measures  Coach compliance was tracked by self-report and direct observation. Coaches reported weekly athlete exposures (AEs) and LE injuries causing a missed practice or game. Research assistants interviewed injured athletes. Injury rates were compared between the control and intervention groups using {chi}2 and Fisher exact tests. Significance was set at P < .05. Poisson regression analysis adjusted for clustering and covariates in an athlete subset reporting personal information (n = 855; 57.3%).

Results  There were 28 023 intervention AEs and 22 925 control AEs. Intervention coaches used prescribed warm-up in 1425 of 1773 practices (80.4%). Intervention athletes had lower rates per 1000 AEs of gradual-onset LE injuries (0.43 vs 1.22, P < .01), acute-onset noncontact LE injuries (0.71 vs 1.61, P < .01), noncontact ankle sprains (0.25 vs 0.74, P = .01), and LE injuries treated surgically (0 vs 0.17, P = .04). Regression analysis showed significant incidence rate ratios for acute-onset noncontact LE injuries (0.33; 95% CI, 0.17-0.61), noncontact ankle sprains (0.38; 95% CI, 0.15-0.98), noncontact knee sprains (0.30; 95% CI, 0.10-0.86), and noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries (0.20; 95% CI, 0.04-0.95).

Conclusion  Coach-led neuromuscular warm-up reduces noncontact LE injuries in female high school soccer and basketball athletes from a mixed-ethnicity, predominantly low-income, urban population.

See: Neuromuscular Warm-Up Associated With Reduced Lower Extremity Injuries in Adolescent Female Athletes (Science Daily)

Street Connectivity is Negatively Associated with Physical Activity in Canadian Youth

October 13, 2011 Comments off

Street Connectivity is Negatively Associated with Physical Activity in Canadian Youth
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

Street connectivity, defined as how well streets connect to one and other and the density of intersections, is positively associated with active transportation in adults. Our objective was to study the relation between street connectivity and physical activity in youth. Study participants consisted of 8,535 students in grades 6–10 from 180 schools across Canada who completed the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey. Street connectivity was measured in a 5 km circular buffer around these schools using established geographic information system measures. Physical activity performed outside of school hours was assessed by questionnaire, and multi-level regression analyses were used to estimate associations with street connectivity after controlling for several covariates. Compared to students living in the highest street connectivity quartile, those in the second (relative risk = 1.22, 95% confidence interval = 1.10–1.35), third (1.25, 1.13–1.37), and fourth (1.21, 1.09–1.34) quartiles were more likely to be physically active outside of school. In conclusion, youth in neighbourhoods with the most highly connected streets reported less physical activity outside of school than youth from neighbourhoods with less connected streets. Relationships between street connectivity and physical activity reported in this national study are in the opposite direction to those previously observed for active transportation in adult populations.

+ Full Paper (PDF)

See: More Intersections Mean Less Outdoor Activity for Children

Policy Statement—Climatic Heat Stress and Exercising Children and Adolescents

October 5, 2011 Comments off

Policy Statement—Climatic Heat Stress and Exercising Children and Adolescents (PDF)
Source: Pediatrics

Results of new research indicate that, contrary to previous thinking, youth do not have less effective thermoregulatory ability, insufficient cardiovascular capacity, or lower physical exertion tolerance compared with adults during exercise in the heat when adequate hydration is maintained. Accordingly, besides poor hydration status, the primary determinants of reduced performance and exertional heat-illness risk in youth during sports and other physical activities in a hot environment include undue physical exertion, insufficient recovery between repeated exercise bouts or closely scheduled same-day training sessions or rounds of sports competition, and inappropriately wearing clothing, uniforms, and protective equipment that play a role in excessive heat retention. Because these known contributing risk factors are modifiable, exertional heat illness is usually preventable. With appropriate preparation, modifications, and monitoring, most healthy children and adolescents can safely participate in outdoor sports and other physical activities through a wide range of challenging warm to hot climatic conditions.

Early Releases of Selected Estimates From the National Health Interview Survey

September 22, 2011 Comments off

Early Releases of Selected Estimates From the National Health Interview Survey
Source: National Center for Health Statistics
From press release (PDF):

In this release, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) updates estimates for 15 selected health measures based on data from the January–March 2011 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and presents estimates from 1997 through 2010 for comparison. The 15 Early Release measures are being published prior to final data editing and final weighting, to provide access to the most recent information from NHIS. The estimates will be updated as each new quarter of NHIS data becomes available.

The 15 measures included in the present report are lack of health insurance coverage and type of coverage, having a usual place to go for medical care, obtaining needed medical care, receipt of influenza vaccination, receipt of pneumococcal vaccination, obesity, leisure-time physical activity, current smoking, alcohol consumption, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing, general health status, personal care needs, serious psychological distress, diagnosed diabetes, and asthma episodes and current asthma.

+ Full Release (PDF)


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