Archive for the ‘veterinary medicine and animal welfare’ Category

Repeat Tracking of Individual Songbirds Reveals Consistent Migration Timing but Flexibility in Route

August 11, 2012 Comments off

Repeat Tracking of Individual Songbirds Reveals Consistent Migration Timing but Flexibility in Route

Source:  PLoS ONE
Tracking repeat migratory journeys of individual animals is required to assess phenotypic plasticity of individual migration behaviour in space and time. We used light-level geolocators to track the long-distance journeys of migratory songbirds (wood thrush, Hylocichla mustelina), and, for the first time, repeat journeys of individuals. We compare between- and within-individual variation in migration to examine flexibility of timing and route in spring and autumn. Date of departure from wintering sites in Central America, along with sex and age factors, explained most of the variation (71%) in arrival date at North American breeding sites. Spring migration showed high within-individual repeatability in timing, but not in route. In particular, spring departure dates of individuals were highly repeatable, with a mean difference between years of just 3 days. Autumn migration timing and routes were not repeatable. Our results provide novel evidence of low phenotypic plasticity in timing of spring migration, which may limit the ability of individuals to adjust migration schedules in response to climate change,

See: Songbirds Migrate On Strict Schedule (Science Daily)

Evidence of Rabies Virus Exposure among Humans in the Peruvian Amazon

August 8, 2012 Comments off

Evidence of Rabies Virus Exposure among Humans in the Peruvian Amazon

Source:  American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

In May of 2010, two communities (Truenococha and Santa Marta) reported to be at risk of vampire bat depredation were surveyed in the Province Datem del Marañón in the Loreto Department of Perú. Risk factors for bat exposure included age less than or equal to 25 years and owning animals that had been bitten by bats. Rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (rVNAs) were detected in 11% (7 of 63) of human sera tested. Rabies virus ribonucleoprotein (RNP) immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies were detected in the sera of three individuals, two of whom were also seropositive for rVNA. Rabies virus RNP IgM antibodies were detected in one respondent with no evidence of rVNA or RNP IgG antibodies. Because one respondent with positive rVNA results reported prior vaccination and 86% (six of seven) of rVNA-positive respondents reported being bitten by bats, these data suggest nonfatal exposure of persons to rabies virus, which is likely associated with vampire bat depredation.

Human-like brain hemispheric dominance in birdsong learning

August 5, 2012 Comments off

Human-like brain hemispheric dominance in birdsong learning

Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

Unlike nonhuman primates, songbirds learn to vocalize very much like human infants acquire spoken language. In humans, Broca’s area in the frontal lobe and Wernicke’s area in the temporal lobe are crucially involved in speech production and perception, respectively. Songbirds have analogous brain regions that show a similar neural dissociation between vocal production and auditory perception and memory. In both humans and songbirds, there is evidence for lateralization of neural responsiveness in these brain regions. Human infants already show left-sided dominance in their brain activation when exposed to speech. Moreover, a memory-specific left-sided dominance in Wernicke’s area for speech perception has been demonstrated in 2.5-mo-old babies. It is possible that auditory-vocal learning is associated with hemispheric dominance and that this association arose in songbirds and humans through convergent evolution. Therefore, we investigated whether there is similar song memory-related lateralization in the songbird brain. We exposed male zebra finches to tutor or unfamiliar song. We found left-sided dominance of neuronal activation in a Broca-like brain region (HVC, a letter-based name) of juvenile and adult zebra finch males, independent of the song stimulus presented. In addition, juvenile males showed left-sided dominance for tutor song but not for unfamiliar song in a Wernicke-like brain region (the caudomedial nidopallium). Thus, left-sided dominance in the caudomedial nidopallium was specific for the song-learning phase and was memory-related. These findings demonstrate a remarkable neural parallel between birdsong and human spoken language, and they have important consequences for our understanding of the evolution of auditory-vocal learning and its neural mechanisms.

Questions and Answers: Proposed Rule – Retail Pet Sales

July 16, 2012 Comments off

Questions and Answers: Proposed Rule – Retail Pet Sales (PDF)
Source: U.S. Department of Agricultural (Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service)

APHIS is proposing to revise its definition of “retail pet store” to close a loophole that has in some cases threatened the health of pets sold sight unseen over the Internet and via phone- and mail-based businesses. Under the current definition of “retail pet store,” which was developed over 40 years ago and predates the Internet, some breeders selling pets are taking advantage of a loophole that improperly exempts them from meeting the basic requirements of the Animal Welfare Act (AWA). The proposed rule will close this loophole, ensuring that animals sold over the Internet and via phone- and mail-based businesses are better monitored for their overall health and humane treatment.

The proposal will restore the definition to its original intent so that it limits the retail pet store exemption to only those places of business and residence:

  • that buyers physically enter to observe the animals available for sale prior to purchase and/ or to take custody of the animals after purchase, and
  • where only the following animals are sold or offered for sale at retail for use as pets: Dogs, cats, rabbits, guinea pigs, hamsters, gerbils, rats, mice, gophers, chinchilla, domestic ferrets, domestic farm animals, birds, and coldblooded species.

APHIS is also proposing to increase the number of breeding females from three to four that small hobby breeders of dogs, cats, and small exotic or wild mammals can own and still be exempt from licensing requirements. To meet the exemption requirements, these breeders can only sell the offspring of the breeding females that were born and raised on their premises, and sold for only pets or exhibition.

Economic Analysis of Critical Habitat Designation for the Northern Spotted Owl

June 7, 2012 Comments off

Economic Analysis of Critical Habitat Designation for the Northern Spotted Owl (PDF)
Source: U.S Fish and Wildlife Service

1. The purpose of this report is to identify and analyze the potential economic impacts of the designation of critical habitat for the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) (hereafter, “NSO” or “species”) in the United States.

2. Section 4(b)(2) of the Endangered Species Act (the Act) directs the Secretary of the Interior to designate critical habitat

“…on the basis of the best scientific data available and after taking into consideration the economic impact, and any other relevant impact, of specifying any particular area as critical habitat. The Secretary may exclude any area from critical habitat if he determines that the benefits of such exclusion outweigh the benefits of specifying such area as part of the critical habitat, unless he determines, based on the best scientific and commercial data available, that the failure to designate such area as critical habitat will result in the extinction of the species concerned.”

2. Section 4(b)(2) of the Endangered Species Act (the Act) directs the Secretary of the Interior to designate critical habitat

“…on the basis of the best scientific data available and after taking into consideration the economic impact, and any other relevant impact, of specifying any particular area as critical habitat. The Secretary may exclude any area from critical habitat if he determines that the benefits of such exclusion outweigh the benefits of specifying such area as part of the critical habitat, unless he determines, based on the best scientific and commercial data available, that the failure to designate such area as critical habitat will result in the extinction of the species concerned.”

4. Finally, this report was prepared with attention to the memorandum issued by the President to the Secretary of the Interior on February 28, 2012, regarding the proposed revised critical habitat for the northern spotted owl, and focusing on minimizing regulatory burdens. We re-state in the text box below the information regarding this memorandum provided in the NOA for this report.

CRS — Table Egg Production and Hen Welfare: The UEP-HSUS Agreement and H.R. 3798

May 29, 2012 Comments off

Table Egg Production and Hen Welfare: The UEP-HSUS Agreement and H.R. 3798 (PDF)
Source: Congressional Research Service (via Federation of American Scientists)

The United Egg Producers (UEP), the largest group representing egg producers, and the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS), the largest animal protection group, have been adversaries for many years over the use of conventional cages in table egg production. In July 2011, the animal agriculture community was stunned when the UEP and HSUS announced that they had agreed to work together to push for federal legislation to regulate how U.S. table eggs are produced. The agreement between UEP and HSUS called for federal legislation that would set cage sizes, establish labeling requirements, and regulate other production practices. The goal of the agreement is to have federal legislation in place by June 30, 2012. As part of the agreement, HSUS agreed to immediately suspend state-level ballot initiative efforts in Oregon and Washington.

On January 23, 2012, the Egg Products Inspection Act Amendments of 2012 (H.R. 3798) was introduced in the House by Representative Schrader of Oregon and three cosponsors— Representatives Gallegly (CA), Farr (CA), and Denham (CA). The bill is the result of negotiations between UEP and HSUS and reflects their agreement of July 2011 to establish uniform, national cage size requirements for table egg-laying hens by adding national standards for laying-hen housing. The bill also includes labeling requirements to disclose how eggs are produced, and air quality, molting, and euthanasia standards for laying hens.

If enacted, H.R. 3798 would require that U.S. egg producers transition egg production from conventional cages that average about 67 square inches of floor space to enriched cages that nearly double floor space for laying hens by the end of the 15- to 18-year phase-in period. The new enriched cages must also have environmental enrichments such as perch spaces, dusting or scratching areas, and nesting areas that allow laying hens to express natural behaviors that conventional cages do not allow.

The agreement and legislation is a marked shift in direction for both UEP and HSUS. UEP views H.R. 3798 as being in the long-term interest and survival of American egg farmers. Egg producers would benefit from national egg standards because they would halt costly state-by-state battles over caged eggs that result in a variety of laws across the country. For HSUS, which has actively campaigned for cage-free egg production, accepting enriched cages was a compromise, but one that could result in significant federal farm animal welfare legislation. H.R. 3798 has been endorsed by a wide range of agricultural, veterinary, consumer, and animal protection groups.

Farm group opponents of H.R. 3798 have criticized it for several reasons. First, they are concerned that it federally legislates management practices for farm animals, something that has not been done in the past. These groups argue that it could set a precedent, paving the way for legislation on animal welfare for the livestock and poultry industries in future legislation. Those opposed to H.R. 3798 also hold the view that the cage requirements in H.R. 3798 are not sciencebased, which undermines long-standing views that animal husbandry practices should be based on the best available science. Opponents also argue that codifying cage standards today ignores innovations that could appear in the future. Last, opponents are concerned that the capital cost of transitioning to enriched cages will be high, and could be prohibitive for small producers.

Revealing the Appetite of the Marine Aquarium Fish Trade: The Volume and Biodiversity of Fish Imported into the United States

May 24, 2012 Comments off

The aquarium trade and other wildlife consumers are at a crossroads forced by threats from global climate change and other anthropogenic stressors that have weakened coastal ecosystems. While the wildlife trade may put additional stress on coral reefs, it brings income into impoverished parts of the world and may stimulate interest in marine conservation. To better understand the influence of the trade, we must first be able to quantify coral reef fauna moving through it. Herein, we discuss the lack of a data system for monitoring the wildlife aquarium trade and analyze problems that arise when trying to monitor the trade using a system not specifically designed for this purpose. To do this, we examined an entire year of import records of marine tropical fish entering the United States in detail, and discuss the relationship between trade volume, biodiversity and introduction of non-native marine fishes. Our analyses showed that biodiversity levels are higher than previous estimates. Additionally, more than half of government importation forms have numerical or other reporting discrepancies resulting in the overestimation of trade volumes by 27%. While some commonly imported species have been introduced into the coastal waters of the USA (as expected), we also found that some uncommon species in the trade have also been introduced. This is the first study of aquarium trade imports to compare commercial invoices to government forms and provides a means to, routinely and in real time, examine the biodiversity of the trade in coral reef wildlife species.

Too dog tired to avoid danger: Self-control depletion in canines increases behavioral approach toward an aggressive threat

May 23, 2012 Comments off

Too dog tired to avoid danger: Self-control depletion in canines increases behavioral approach toward an aggressive threat
Source: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review

This study investigated whether initial selfcontrol exertion by dogs would affect behavioral approach toward an aggressive threat. Dogs were initially required to exert self-control (sit still for 10 min) or not (caged for 10 min) before they were walked into a room in which a barking, growling dog was caged. Subject dogs spent 4 min in this room but were free to choose where in the room they spent their time. Approaching the unfamiliar conspecific was the predisposed response, but it was also the riskier choice (Lindsay, 2005). We found that following the exertion of self-control (in comparison with the control condition), dogs spent greater time in proximity to the aggressor. This pattern of behavior suggests that initial self-control exertion results in riskier and more impulsive decision making by dogs.

See: Too Dog Tired to Avoid Danger: Like Humans, Dogs Engage in Riskier Behaviors When Their Self-Control Is Depleted (Science Daily)

Canine-assisted therapy in military medicine

May 16, 2012 Comments off
Source:  United States Army Medical Department Journal (April-June 2012 issue)
Historically speaking, only relatively recently have the benefits that canines offer to human health and well-being been recognized, formally examined, and applied. Service dogs assisting the blind have been common for several decades, and the use of dogs to assist those with other physical handicaps, for example, the deaf and those with ambulatory limitations, has expanded rapidly as organizations training and supplying such dogs have multiplied. The military healthcare system, as well as that of the Veterans Administration, have also used canines for such purposes as Wounded Warriors are reintegrated into the civilian world. However, the formal use of dogs by military medicine as part of therapy during recovery from both physical and psychological injuries is an even more recent application.

This issue of the AMEDD Journal focuses on that expanding role of dogs in the military healthcare system. COL Bobbi Amaker and COL (Ret) Cam Ritchie have assembled a collection of articles that explore the recognition and acceptance of the value of therapy dogs by both military and civilian healthcare professionals. The articles examine the various capacities in which dogs work among patients in medical facilities. There are also detailed discussions of the fairly recent initiative of deploying specially trained dogs overseas with combat and operational stress control teams to assist in their vitally important work in the mitigation of stress and anxiety among deployed personnel. Interestingly, as described in one article, this role of canine therapy has been applied repeatedly to disasters and tragic events in the United States, beginning with September 11, 2001, to address the confusion, stress, and anxiety of both victims and rescue/recovery workers in dealing with the feelings of futility, frustration, and loss.

Imported Human Rabies in a U.S. Army Soldier — New York, 2011

May 14, 2012 Comments off

Imported Human Rabies in a U.S. Army Soldier — New York, 2011
Source: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (CDC)

On August 19, 2011, a male U.S. Army soldier with progressive right arm and shoulder pain, nausea, vomiting, ataxia, anxiety, and dysphagia was admitted to an emergency department (ED) in New York for suspected rabies. Rabies virus antigens were detected in a nuchal skin biopsy, rabies virus antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and rabies viral RNA in saliva and CSF specimens by state and CDC rabies laboratories. An Afghanistan canine rabies virus variant was identified. The patient underwent an experimental treatment protocol (1) but died on August 31. The patient had described a dog bite while in Afghanistan. However, he had not received effective rabies postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). In total, 29 close contacts and health-care personnel (HCP) received PEP after contact with the patient. This case highlights the continued risks for rabies virus exposure during travel or deployment to rabies-enzootic countries, the need for global canine rabies elimination through vaccination, and the importance of following effective PEP protocols and ensuring global PEP availability.

Functional MRI in Awake Unrestrained Dogs

May 11, 2012 Comments off
Source:  Social Science Research Network (SSRN)

Because of dogs’ prolonged evolution with humans, many of the canine cognitive skills are thought to represent a selection of traits that make dogs particularly sensitive to human cues. But how does the dog mind dog actually work? To develop a methodology to answer this question, we trained two dogs to remain motionless for the duration required to collect quality fMRI images by using positive reinforcement without sedation or physical restraints. The task was designed to determine which brain circuits differentially respond to human hand signals denoting the presence or absence of a food reward. Head motion within trials was less than 1 mm. Consistent with prior reinforcement learning literature, we observed caudate activation in both dogs in response to the hand signal denoting reward versus no-reward.

Do Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) Make Counterproductive Choices Because They Are Sensitive to Human Ostensive Cues?

May 2, 2012 Comments off

Do Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) Make Counterproductive Choices Because They Are Sensitive to Human Ostensive Cues?
Source: PLoS ONE

Dogs appear to be sensitive to human ostensive communicative cues in a variety of situations, however there is still a measure of controversy as to the way in which these cues influence human-dog interactions. There is evidence for instance that dogs can be led into making evaluation errors in a quantity discrimination task, for example losing their preference for a larger food quantity if a human shows a preference for a smaller one, yet there is, so far, no explanation for this phenomenon. Using a modified version of this task, in the current study we investigated whether non-social, social or communicative cues (alone or in combination) cause dogs to go against their preference for the larger food quantity. Results show that dogs’ evaluation errors are indeed caused by a social bias, but, somewhat contrary to previous studies, they highlight the potent effect of stimulus enhancement (handling the target) in influencing the dogs’ response. A mild influence on the dog’s behaviour was found only when different ostensive cues (and no handling of the target) were used in combination, suggesting their cumulative effect. The discussion addresses possible motives for discrepancies with previous studies suggesting that both the intentionality and the directionality of the action may be important in causing dogs’ social biases.

An Emperor Penguin Population Estimate: The First Global, Synoptic Survey of a Species from Space

April 19, 2012 Comments off
Source:  PLoS ONE
Our aim was to estimate the population of emperor penguins (Aptenodytes fosteri) using a single synoptic survey. We examined the whole continental coastline of Antarctica using a combination of medium resolution and Very High Resolution (VHR) satellite imagery to identify emperor penguin colony locations. Where colonies were identified, VHR imagery was obtained in the 2009 breeding season. The remotely-sensed images were then analysed using a supervised classification method to separate penguins from snow, shadow and guano. Actual counts of penguins from eleven ground truthing sites were used to convert these classified areas into numbers of penguins using a robust regression algorithm.
We found four new colonies and confirmed the location of three previously suspected sites giving a total number of emperor penguin breeding colonies of 46. We estimated the breeding population of emperor penguins at each colony during 2009 and provide a population estimate of ~238,000 breeding pairs (compared with the last previously published count of 135,000–175,000 pairs). Based on published values of the relationship between breeders and non-breeders, this translates to a total population of ~595,000 adult birds.
There is a growing consensus in the literature that global and regional emperor penguin populations will be affected by changing climate, a driver thought to be critical to their future survival. However, a complete understanding is severely limited by the lack of detailed knowledge about much of their ecology, and importantly a poor understanding of their total breeding population. To address the second of these issues, our work now provides a comprehensive estimate of the total breeding population that can be used in future population models and will provide a baseline for long-term research.

See: Twice as Many Emperor Penguins as Thought in Antarctica, First-Ever Penguin Count from Space Shows (Science Daily)

Human Orf Virus Infection from Household Exposures — United States, 2009–2011

April 14, 2012 Comments off

Human Orf Virus Infection from Household Exposures — United States, 2009–2011
Source: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (CDC)

Orf, also known as contagious ecthyma, is a zoonotic infection caused by a dermatotropic parapoxvirus that commonly infects sheep and goats; it is transmitted to humans through contact with an infected animal or fomites. In humans, orf manifests as an ulcerative skin lesion sometimes resembling bacterial infection or neoplasm. Human infection typically is associated with occupational animal contact and has been reported in children after visiting petting zoos and livestock fairs (1). Cases lacking these exposure histories might be misdiagnosed, leading to unnecessary treatment of orf lesions, which do not usually require any specific treatment (2). This report describes four cases of human orf associated with household meat processing or animal slaughter, highlighting the importance of nontraditional risk factors. Orf should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with clinically compatible skin lesions and a history of household meat processing or animal slaughter. Persons and communities with these exposure risks also should receive counseling regarding the use of nonpermeable gloves and hand hygiene to prevent infection.

Rabies Risk Assessment of Exposures to a Bat on a Commercial Airliner — United States, August 2011

April 13, 2012 Comments off

Rabies Risk Assessment of Exposures to a Bat on a Commercial Airliner — United States, August 2011
Source: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (CDC)

On August 5, 2011, a bat flew through the cabin of a commercial airliner minutes after takeoff during an early morning flight from Wisconsin to Georgia, potentially exposing the passengers and flight crew to rabies virus. Three days later, the Wisconsin Division of Public Health (WDPH) requested assistance from CDC to conduct a rabies risk assessment for the passengers, flight crew, and ground crew members associated with the flight. No one was determined to have been exposed to rabies virus based on Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices guidelines for rabies prevention (1). An environmental assessment of the Wisconsin airport found a rigorous animal control and incident documentation program and no evidence of bat infestation. Although none of the persons assessed required postexposure rabies prophylaxis in this incident, bats active in daylight or found in areas where they are not normally found (e.g., aboard an aircraft) can pose risks for rabies transmission, and public health officials should be prepared to respond to such occurrences.

At 6:45 a.m. on August 5, 2011, a commercial airliner carrying 50 passengers, two pilots, and one flight attendant departed Madison, Wisconsin, bound for Atlanta, Georgia. Shortly after takeoff, a bat flew from the rear of the aircraft through the cabin several times before being trapped in the lavatory (2). The pilots were notified, and the aircraft returned to the airport. All passengers disembarked to allow maintenance crew members to remove the bat from the aircraft. The bat avoided capture and flew out the cabin door, through the airport terminal, and was seen exiting the building through automatic doors. After a search of the aircraft cabin for additional bats, 15 passengers reboarded the aircraft; 35 remaining passengers made alternative arrangements. Because the bat was not captured, the rabies status of the animal was unknown.

AVMA Collection: Canine aggression

April 5, 2012 Comments off

AVMA Collection: Canine aggression
Source: American Veterinary Medical Association

From e-mail:
The third collection in the Canine Behavior Series, Canine aggression, is now available online.

Aggressive behavior is the primary problem for which dog owners seek help from behavioral specialists. More than 1 million dog bites are reported annually in the United States, and, contrary to the expectation that bites are usually inflicted by free-roaming dogs, dogs owned by the family, neighbors, or friends of the victim inflict most bites.

Understanding how to properly identify and treat canine aggression can be crucial to the retention of affected dogs within their homes, as well as to the safety of their owners and family members. The Canine aggression collection will help you take advantage of the resources from the JAVMA for addressing aggression-related behavior problems in dogs.

Insights into the Ecology and Evolutionary Success of Crocodilians Revealed through Bite-Force and Tooth-Pressure Experimentation

April 4, 2012 Comments off
Source:  PLoS ONE
Critical to crocodilian long-term success was the evolution of a high bite-force generating musculo-skeletal architecture. Once achieved, the relative force capacities of this system went essentially unmodified throughout subsequent diversification. Rampant changes in body size and concurrent changes in bite force served as a mechanism to allow access to differing prey types and sizes. Further access to the diversity of near-shore prey was gained primarily through changes in tooth pressure via the evolution of dental form and distributions of the teeth within the jaws. Rostral proportions changed substantially throughout crocodilian evolution, but not in correspondence with bite forces. The biomechanical and ecological ramifications of such changes need further examination.

Interior Announces Onshore Wind Energy Guidelines; Voluntary measures will help wind energy developers minimize impacts on wildlife

March 26, 2012 Comments off

Interior Announces Onshore Wind Energy Guidelines; Voluntary measures will help wind energy developers minimize impacts on wildlife
Source: U.S. Department of the Interior

The Department of the Interior today released guidelines designed to help wind energy project developers avoid and minimize impacts of land-based wind projects on wildlife and their habitats. The voluntary guidelines will help shape the smart siting, design and operation of the nation’s growing wind energy economy.

Using a tiered approach, the guidelines provide a structured, scientific process for developers, federal and state agencies, and tribes to identify sites with low risk to wildlife, and to help them assess, mitigate, and monitor any adverse effects of wind energy projects on wildlife and their habitats. The voluntary guidelines, which take effect today, are designed to be used for all utility-scale, community-scale, and distributed land-based wind energy projects on both private and public lands.

+ Final Land-Based Wind Energy Guidelines (FWS)
+ Fact Sheet (PDF)

Degradation of Rural and Urban Great Tit Song: Testing Transmission Efficiency

March 23, 2012 Comments off
Acoustic signals play a fundamental role in avian territory defence and mate attraction. Several studies have now shown that spectral properties of bird song differ between urban and rural environments. Previously this has been attributed to competition for acoustic space as a result of low-frequency noise present in cities. However, the physical structure of urban areas may have a contributory effect. Here we investigate the sound degradation properties of woodland and city environments using both urban and rural great tit song. We show that although urban surroundings caused significantly less degradation to both songs, the transmission efficiency of rural song compared to urban song was significantly lower in the city. While differences between the two songs in woodland were generally minimal, some measures of the transmission efficiency of rural song were significantly lower than those of urban song, suggesting additional benefits to singing rural songs in this setting. In an attempt to create artificial urban song, we mimicked the increase in minimum frequency found several times previously in urban song. However, this did not replicate the same transmission properties as true urban song, suggesting changes in other song characteristics, such as temporal adjustments, are needed to further increase transmission of an avian signal in the city. We suggest that the structure of the acoustic environment, in addition to the background noise, plays an important role in signal adaptation.

New From the GAO

March 1, 2012 Comments off

New GAO Reports and TestimoniesSource: Government Accountability Office


1. Drug Pricing: Research on Savings from Generic Drug Use. GAO-12-371R, January 31.
Podcast –

2. Endangered Sea Turtles: Better Coordination, Data Collection, and Planning Could Improve Federal Protection and Recovery Efforts. GAO-12-242, January 31.
Highlights –

3. NASA: Assessments of Selected Large-Scale Projects. GAO-12-207SP, March 1.
Highlights –

4. Financial Audit: American Battle Monuments Commission’s Financial Statements for Fiscal Years 2011 and 2010. GAO-12-404, March 1.
Highlights –


1. Department of Homeland Security: Continued Progress Made Improving and Integrating Management Areas, but More Work Remains, by David C. Maurer, Director, Homeland Security and Justice Issues, before the House Committee on Homeland Security: Oversight, Investigations, and Management Subcommittee. GAO-12-365T, March 1.
Highlights –

2. Fiscal Year 2011 U.S. Government Financial Statements: The Federal Government Faces Continuing Financial Management and Long-Term Fiscal Challenges, by Comptroller General Gene L. Dodaro, before the House Committee on Oversight And Government Reform: Government Organization, Efficiency And Financial Management Subcommittee. GAO-12-444T, March 1.
Highlights –


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