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Adult Awareness of Tobacco Advertising, Promotion, and Sponsorship — 14 Countries

May 28, 2012 Comments off

Adult Awareness of Tobacco Advertising, Promotion, and Sponsorship — 14 Countries
Source: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (CDC)

According to the 2012 Report of the U.S. Surgeon General, exposure to tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship (TAPS) is associated with the initiation and continuation of smoking among young persons. The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) requires countries to prohibit all forms of TAPS (2); the United States signed the agreement in 2004, but the action has not yet been ratified. Many countries have adopted partial bans covering direct advertising in traditional media channels; however, few countries have adopted comprehensive bans on all types of direct and indirect marketing. To assess progress toward elimination of TAPS and the level of awareness of TAPS among persons aged ≥15 years, CDC used data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) collected in 14 countries during 2008–2010. Awareness of any TAPS ranged from 12.4% in Turkey to 70.4% in the Philippines. In the four countries where awareness of TAPs was ≤15%, three of the countries had comprehensive bans covering all nine channels assessed by GATS, and the fourth country banned seven of the nine channels. In 12 countries, more persons were aware of advertising in stores than advertising via any other channel. Reducing exposure to TAPS is important to prevent initiation of tobacco use by youths and young adults and to help smokers quit.

Uruguay: Selected Issues Paper

March 4, 2011 Comments off

Uruguay: Selected Issues Paper (PDF)
Source: International Monetary Fund

There are at least three important caveats about the precision of cyclically adjusted balance estimates for Uruguay. First, the work on CABs in Uruguay is still at an early stage. Even countries with extensive experience of using CABs revise the estimates as both input data and the framework are improved. For instance, in Chile, the government recently created a high-level commission to recommend reforms that could enhance its decade-old fiscal rule to make it more effective (Box 1).4 Second, Uruguay’s economy has undergone a substantial transformation since the financial crisis in 2002. And there have been important reforms to the fiscal framework, including a tax reform in 2007. These changes make it more challenging to derive precise estimates of the cyclical revenue components. Third, there are several Uruguay specific items that need to be taken into account to get an accurate estimate of both structural revenues and expenditures; this paper discusses some of them, but further work is required. These caveats suggest caution in interpreting the results and that a broad set of indicators should be used.

See also: Uruguay: 2010 Article IV Consultation-Staff Report; Public Information Notice; and Statement by the Executive Director for Uruguay (PDF)

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