The AIC undertook a literature review on single person police patrols both in Australia and internationally. This report examines challenges faced by first-response police officers when working alone and the impact this had on them, operational decisions to deploy single person patrols and how the community view this issue. It concludes that there has been limited research on single person patrols in policing and of the research findings available in the literature, results are mixed and updated research needs to be undertaken.
Report card shows Australia’s oceans are changing
Source: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO)
Launched today, the 2012 Marine Climate Change in Australia Report Card demonstrates that climate change is having significant impacts on Australia’s marine ecosystems.
The report card provides information about the current and predicted-future state of Australia’s marine climate and its impact on our marine biodiversity. The report card also outlines actions that are underway to help our marine ecosystems adapt to climate change.
Key findings show
- warming sea temperatures are influencing the distribution of marine plants and animals, with species currently found in tropical and temperate waters likely to move south
- new research suggests winds over the Southern Ocean and current dynamics are strongly influencing foraging of seabirds that breed in south-east Australia and feed close to the Antarctic each summer
- some tropical fish species have a greater ability to acclimatise to rising water temperatures than previously thought
- the Australian science community is widely engaged in research, monitoring and observing programs to increase our understanding of climate change impacts and inform management
- adaptation planning is happening now, from seasonal forecast for fisheries and aquaculture, to climate-proofing of breeding sites for turtles and seabirds.
See: Report Card Shows Australia’s Oceans Are Changing (Science Daily)
Firearm trafficking and serious and organised crime gangs
Source: Australian Institute of Criminology
Despite strict regulations on the import, export, ownership, use, transfer and storage of licit firearms, there exists in Australia a potentially large pool of illicit firearms, some of which are acquired, stockpiled and used for serious and organised crime. This report follows a modest group of publicly released examinations of firearm trafficking operations in Australia, to describe what can be determined about the composition and maintenance of the illicit firearm market, its use by serious and organised crime groups and the diversity of transaction arrangements used to vend illicit firearms.
Shrinking budgets are driving fundamental changes to the size and shape of governments around the world. Leaders are exploring a more compact, dynamic government workforce, and in turn, their underlying asset needs are changing. Simply put, a reduced workforce translates to reduced property needs. But tackling the effective management of one of government’s largest spending areas is easier said than done.
While each government faces its own unique set of barriers to improving property management, there are a number of critical success factors to creating and employing smart property strategies. This report examines five areas that would enable more streamlined and efficient handling of government property through best practices and examples from across the globe.
Pivot to the Pacific? The Obama Administration’s ‘Rebalancing’ Toward Asia (PDF)
Source: Congressional Research Service (via Federation of American Scientists)
In the fall of 2011, the Obama Administration issued a series of announcements indicating that the United States would be expanding and intensifying its already significant role in the Asia- Pacific, particularly in the southern part of the region. The fundamental goal underpinning the shift is to devote more effort to influencing the development of the Asia-Pacific’s norms and rules, particularly as China emerges as an ever-more influential regional power. Given that one purpose of the “pivot” or “rebalancing” toward the Asia-Pacific is to deepen U.S. credibility in the region at a time of fiscal constraint, Congress’s oversight and appropriations roles, as well as its approval authority over free trade agreements, will help determine to what extent the Administration’s plans are implemented and how various trade-offs are managed.
Areas of Continuity. Much of the “pivot” to the Asia-Pacific is a continuation and expansion of policies already undertaken by previous administrations, as well as earlier in President Obama’s term. Since President Obama’s inauguration in 2009, the United States has given considerable time and emphasis to Southeast Asia and to regional multilateral institutions. Under President George W. Bush, the United States emphasized the strengthening of relations with existing allies in Asia, began moving toward a more flexible and sustainable troop presence in the region, concluded a free trade agreement (FTA) with South Korea, brought the United States into the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) FTA negotiations, and forged new partnerships with India and Vietnam. All of these steps have been furthered by the Obama Administration.
Transformational Elements. That said, there are a number of new aspects of the shift. The most dramatic lie in the military sphere. As part of a plan to expand the U.S. presence in the southwestern Pacific and make it more flexible, the Obama Administration has announced new deployments or rotations of troops and equipment to Australia and Singapore. U.S. officials have also pledged that planned and future reductions in defense spending will not come at the expense of the Asia-Pacific (nor of the Middle East). Additionally, underlying the “pivot” is a broader geographic vision of the Asia-Pacific region that includes the Indian Ocean and many of its coastal states.
Benefits, Costs, and Risks. Underlying the “pivot” is a conviction that the center of gravity for U.S. foreign policy, national security, and economic interests is being realigned and shifting towards Asia, and that U.S. strategy and priorities need to be adjusted accordingly. For many observers, it is imperative that the United States give more emphasis to the Asia-Pacific. Indeed, for years, many countries in the region have encouraged the United States to step up its activity to provide a balance to China’s rising influence.
There are a number of risks to the “pivot,” however. In an era of constrained U.S. defense resources, an increased U.S. military emphasis on the Asia-Pacific region might result in a reduction in U.S. military capacity in other parts of the world. Another budgetary consideration is that plans to restructure U.S. military deployments in Asia and minimize cuts in the Navy may run up against more restrictive funding constraints than plans yet assume. Additionally, the perception among many that the “rebalancing” is targeted against China could strengthen the hand of Chinese hard-liners. Such an impression could also potentially make it more difficult for the United States to gain China’s cooperation on a range of issues. Additionally, the prominence the Obama Administration has given to the initiative has raised the costs to the United States if it or successor administrations fail to follow through on public pledges made, particularly in the military realm.
Causes of Death, Australia, 2010
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics
nformation contained in the preceding chapters of this publication refer to deaths registered during the 2010 calendar year. In this chapter, death statistics are based on a year of occurrence, that is, the year in which the death actually occurred, rather than the year it was registered. The presentation of year of occurrence data in this publication facilitates international comparisons.
There are a proportion of deaths that occur in a year which are not registered until subsequent years. The international standard for publishing on a year of occurrence basis is to include deaths registered within the relevant occurrence year, and deaths for that same occurrence year which are registered the year immediately following. For example, deaths occuring in 2009 that have been registered in both 2009 and 2010 are presented below.
Analysis of deaths in Australia has shown that the number of deaths registered after the second year are not significant; that is, there is a very small number of deaths registered after the second year.
Year of occurrence data allow for seasonal analysis, and data are not distorted by the effects of late registrations or changes in time lags in processing registrations. In those countries where registration systems are complete and timely, there is not a significant difference between the number of deaths derived on a year of registration basis and those on a year of occurrence basis.
For Australia, approximately 95% of deaths registered in a particular year occurred in that year. However, variations can occur in certain subsets of the population and for particular causes of death. For instance, while 94.8% of the total 140,760 deaths registered in 2009 occurred in the same year, only 86.7% of the 2,405 Indigenous deaths and 91.6% of 9,043 deaths due to External causes registered in 2009 occurred in that year. More detailed data for specific causes or population groups are available from the ABS on request.
Australian crime: Facts & figures: 2011
Source: Australian Institute of Criminology
Australian Crime: Facts & Figures is an up-to-date snapshot of crime patterns and trends in Australia. It contains information on specific crimes, victims, offenders, the location of criminal acts and the operation of criminal justice systems—focusing on the work of police, courts and prisons.
The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) is a proposed regional free trade agreement (FTA) currently under negotiation between Australia, Brunei, Chile, Malaysia, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, the United States, and Vietnam. The negotiating partners have expressed an interest in allowing this proposed “living agreement” to cover new trade topics and to include new members that are willing to adopt the proposed agreement’s high standards. To that end, Canada, Japan, and Mexico recently stated that they would seek consultations with the partner countries about the possibility of joining the negotiations.The TPP negotiations are of significant interest to Congress. Congressional involvement includes consultations with U.S. negotiators on and oversight of the details of the negotiations, and eventual consideration of legislation to implement the final trade agreement. In assessing the TPP negotiations, Members may be interested in understanding the potential economic impact and significance of TPP and the economic characteristics of the other TPP countries as they evaluate the potential impact of the proposed TPP on the U.S. economy and the commercial opportunities for expansion into TPP markets.This report provides a comparative economic analysis of the TPP countries and their economic relations with the United States. It suggests that the TPP negotiating partners encompass great diversity in population, economic development, and trade and investment patterns with the United States. This economic diversity and inclusion of fast-growing emerging markets presents both opportunities and challenges for the United States in achieving a comprehensive and high standard regional FTA among TPP countries.The proposed TPP and its potential expansion are important due to the economic significance of the Asia-Pacific region for both the United States and the world. The region is home to 40% of the world’s population, produces over 50% of global GDP, and includes some of the fastest growing economies in the world. While current TPP negotiating partners made up about 5% of U.S. trade in 2010, Asia-Pacific economies as a whole, made up over 60%.The United States is the largest TPP market in terms of both GDP and population. In 2010, nonU.S. TPP partners collectively had a GDP of $2.3 trillion, 16% of the U.S. level, and a population of 195 million, 63% of the U.S. level. Entry of Canada, Japan, and/or Mexico would increase the economic significance of the agreement on both these metrics. Among the TPP partners, the majority of overall U.S. trade and investment flows are with Australia and Singapore. In merchandise trade, however, the United States imports more from Malaysia than any other TPP country. Considering the TPP region collectively, over 25% of all U.S.-TPP imports and exports are in computers/electronic components. At the bilateral level, top U.S. exports are largely in the same major product categories, but top U.S. imports vary considerably by country.There are four U.S. bilateral FTAs in place with current TPP partners: Australia, Chile, Peru, and Singapore. All other TPP partners except Peru, have agreements in place with five or more of the other TPP partners. The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), of which Brunei, Malaysia, Singapore, and Vietnam are members, accounts for much of this existing interconnectedness. Moreover, ASEAN agreements with larger regional economies (e.g., China, Japan, and Korea), present a second possible avenue for Asia-Pacific economic integration, albeit one that currently excludes the United States.
Australia: Background and U.S. Relations (PDF)
Source: Congressional Research Service (via Federation of American Scientists)
The Commonwealth of Australia and the United States enjoy a very close alliance relationship. Australia shares many cultural traditions and values with the United States and has been a treaty ally since the signing of the Australia-New Zealand-United States (ANZUS) Treaty in 1951. Australia made major contributions to the allied cause in both the First and Second World Wars and has been a staunch ally of Britain and the United States. President Obama traveled to Australia in November 2011 to reaffirm and extend the bilateral ANZUS alliance. During his visit, upgrades to the alliance, including the stationing of U.S. Marines in northern Australia and increased rotations of U.S. Air Force planes, were announced by President Obama and Labor Party Prime Minister Julia Gillard. This marks a significant reaffirmation of the alliance at a time of shifting geopolitical dynamics in the Asia-Pacific Region and is viewed by many as a key component of the Obama Administration’s “Pacific Pivot” or strategic rebalancing.
All recent Prime Ministers of Australia, including Prime Ministers Julia Gillard, Kevin Rudd, and John Howard, have reaffirmed Australia’s traditional view that the United States is a key source of stability in the Asia-Pacific region and remains Australia’s key ally and strategic partner. This view is also shared by opposition leader Tony Abbott of the right of centre Liberal Party. Prime Minister Julia Gillard became Prime Minister after an internal Labor Party struggle. Former Prime Minister Rudd has remained in the government as Gillard’s Foreign Minister. Prime Minister Gillard narrowly secured a second term as Prime Minister in August 2010 over the right of centre Liberal-National Coalition.
Under the former Liberal government of John Howard, Australia invoked the ANZUS treaty to offer assistance to the United States after the attacks of September 11, 2001, in which 22 Australians were among those killed. Australia was one of the first countries to commit troops to U.S. military operations in Afghanistan and Iraq. Terrorist attacks on Australians in Indonesia also led Australia to share many of the United States’ concerns in the struggle against Islamist militancy in Southeast Asia and beyond. The United States and the previous Howard Government signed a bilateral Free Trade Agreement (FTA) and negotiated a Treaty on Defense Trade Cooperation.
Australia plays a key role in promoting regional stability in Southeast Asia and the Southwest Pacific and supports international efforts to promote stability in Afghanistan. Australia has led peacekeeping efforts in the Asia-Pacific region, including East Timor and the Solomon Islands, and has supported U.S. efforts and worked closely with key regional states in the war against terrorism in Southeast Asia. These actions demonstrate Australia’s resolve to promote stability in Southeast Asia, the South Pacific, and beyond.
The Australian economy has done relatively well as compared to other developed economies in recent years. GDP growth is expected to rise from 2.8% in 2012 to an annual rate of 3% for the period from 2013 to 2016. Australia is also expected to balance its budget in fiscal year 2012/13 (July-June). Australia’s Senate passed a carbon tax which the opposition has pledged to repeal if it wins the next elections expected in 2013. Australia is also working with the United States to craft the Trans Pacific Partnership (TPP) agreement to promote trade and investment liberalization in the Asia-Pacific region.
Provides an on-line reference point for sources of data relating to Family and Domestic Violence (FDV) that are collected by, or on behalf of, Australian and State and Territory Government agencies. Directory entries provide information about the purpose, type of collection, frequency, history and range of FDV-related data available from each collection. Contact details, including links to source agencies are also provided as well as information about publications and further data availability for each source.
Australia is not immune to the risks of labour trafficking; labour shortages, sector tolerance to illegal work practices and the recruitment of vulnerable workers can result in labour exploitation (David 2010). The horticultural sector in Australia is experiencing some of these risks and Pacific Islanders are a vulnerable migrant group working in this sector.Australia’s Pacific Seasonal Worker Pilot Scheme (PSWPS) aims to create a safe pathway for unskilled or low-skilled Pacific Islanders to temporarily work in Australia’s horticultural sector. Recent research by the AIC suggests that addressing labour trafficking does not just involve prosecuting the most extreme cases but should also have a focus on preventing and reducing a broader spectrum of practices that create an environment that is tolerant, or even encouraging, of exploitation (David 2010). While the PSWPS is not an anti-trafficking program, it has been designed and piloted to prevent a broad spectrum of poor or illegal labour practices and therefore may assist to prevent labour trafficking in Australia and regionally. This paper provides an analysis of the PSWPS and examines emerging evidence about how the program manages risks of exploitation of overseas temporary workers from the Pacific Islands.
Disability, Ageing and Carers, Australia: Disability and Long Term Health Conditions, 2009 (cat. no. 4433.0) presents a suite of data cubes examining the relationship between disability and long term health conditions. The tables include broad level information on the numbers of people with long term health conditions in each of the States of Australia (ACT and NT are not included). They also include information on some of the most common long term health conditions, the degree to which these restrict people with disability and the causes underlying main conditions.
Several tables provide detailed information on five impairment groups – sensory, intellectual, physical, psychological and head injury (an impairment is where there is loss or abnormality in body structure or the way in which the body or mind work). Impairment groups are examined with relation to living arrangements and to the restrictions particular impairments place on daily living (personal care, schooling and employment). There is also information on the need for, and receipt of, assistance in relation to impairment groups.
Several tables provide information on specific age groups – children (0-14 years), working age adults (15-64 years) and people aged 65 years and over.
Current data from the NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research identifies that violent crime is stable or falling in most categories however the potential for victims to be traumatised by stories in the media continues to be a challenge.
Respectful Reporting: Victims of Violent Crime Media Strategy promotes responsible reporting of violent crime and encourages the media to consider the potential impact that their report could have on a victim. The NSW Government, led by the NSW Department of Attorney General and Justice (DAGJ) will work in partnership with the media, Government and non-Government agencies and victims to achieve the goals of the strategy.
The Respectful Reporting: Victims of Violent Crime Media Strategy has been developed in consultation with DAGJ, Homicide Victims Support Group (Aus) Inc (HVSG), Victims of Crime Assistance League (VOCAL), Enough is Enough, Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions (ODPP), as well as the Department of Human Services NSW – Ageing, Disability and Home Care and the Violence Prevention Coordination Unit, Office for Women’s Policy, NSW Department of Premier & Cabinet, and provides key policy directions and priorities for the next two years.
The strategy has also been developed in collaboration with the Journalism Education Association of Australia (JEAA). We acknowledge the work they have already done in this area and look forward to continuing this collaborative approach.
This publication presents a statistical overview of sport and recreation in Australia, using the latest data available from a diverse range of ABS and other collections. The dominant focus is on sport and physical recreation, with data also being presented for other selected leisure areas.