Archive for the ‘ethnic’ Category

Heterogeneity in Discrimination?: A Field Experiment

September 27, 2012 Comments off

Heterogeneity in Discrimination?: A Field Experiment
Source: Social Science Research Network

We provide evidence from the field that levels of discrimination are heterogeneous across contexts in which we might expect to observe bias. We explore how discrimination varies in its extent and source through an audit study including over 6,500 professors at top U.S. universities drawn from 89 disciplines and 258 institutions. Faculty in our field experiment received meeting requests from fictional prospective doctoral students who were randomly assigned identity-signaling names (Caucasian, Black, Hispanic, Indian, Chinese; male, female). Faculty response rates indicate that discrimination against women and minorities is both prevalent and unevenly distributed in academia. Discrimination varies meaningfully by discipline and is more extreme in higher paying disciplines and at private institutions. These findings raise important questions for future research about how and why pay and institutional characteristics may relate to the manifestation of bias. They also suggest that past audit studies may have underestimated the prevalence of discrimination in the United States. Finally, our documentation of heterogeneity in discrimination suggests where targeted efforts to reduce discrimination in academia are most needed and highlights that similar research may help identify areas in other industries where efforts to reduce bias should focus.

Cancer Statistics About Hispanics Released

September 18, 2012 Comments off

Cancer Statistics About Hispanics Released
Source: American Cancer Society

A new Cancer Facts & Figures for Hispanics/Latinos has been released in conjunction with National Hispanic Heritage Month. This publication is updated every 3 years and is a resource for current information about cancer among Hispanics. But you may be wondering why we produce a 35-page report devoted solely to cancer statistics for Hispanics.

For 60 years the American Cancer Society’s Research department has promoted cancer prevention and control by providing cancer data in a user-friendly format called Cancer Facts & Figures. Over the years, new Facts & Figures publications have been developed to highlight a particular cancer type or a specific population. In 2000, to answer the increasing demand for more in-depth information on cancer in the growing Hispanic community, the inaugural Cancer Facts & Figures for Hispanics/Latinos was introduced.

See: Cancer Now Leading Cause of Death in US Hispanics (Science Daily)

National Hispanic Heritage Month

September 18, 2012 Comments off

National Hispanic Heritage Month
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics

National Hispanic Heritage Month began in 1968 as Hispanic Heritage Week. The celebration expanded in 1988 to span a month-long period beginning on September 15 and ending on October 15. The independence anniversaries of Chile, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, and Nicaragua all occur during this time period.

National Hispanic Heritage Month celebrates the cultures, histories, and accomplishments of Americans of Hispanic or Latino ancestry. Across the United States, many communities, businesses, and schools take time to recognize and honor this heritage.

The U.S. Hispanic or Latino population exceeded 50 million in 2010, constituting more than 16 percent of the total U.S. population. In this Spotlight, we take a look at the Hispanic labor force—including labor force participation, employment and unemployment, educational attainment, geographic location, country of birth, earnings, consumer expenditures, time use, workplace injuries, and employment projections.

Latino Immigrant Entrepreneurs: How to Capitalize on Their Economic Potential

September 11, 2012 Comments off

Latino Immigrant Entrepreneurs: How to Capitalize on Their Economic Potential

Source: Council on Foreign Relations

Latino immigrant entrepreneurs are making important yet largely overlooked contributions to the U.S. economy. With expanding Latino markets at home and abroad, their economic impact is set to grow. But roadblocks stand in the way. Policy changes–including visa reform, improving access to credit, and a more ambitious trade agenda with Latin American countries–would help the United States unlock the full potential of its Latino immigrant entrepreneurs.

Racial and Ethnic Diversity Goes Local: Charting Change in American Communities Over Three Decades

September 7, 2012 Comments off

Racial and Ethnic Diversity Goes Local: Charting Change in American Communities Over Three Decades (PDF)

Source: Department of Sociology and Population Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University

During the last three decades, the United States has become more racially and ethnically diverse. We examine this trend at the local level, where the consequences of increased diversity for the economy, education, and politics regularly prompt debate, if not rancor. Decennial census and ACS data spanning the 1980-2010 period allow us to determine (a) the pervasiveness of diversity across America, focusing on metropolitan, micropolitan, and rural areas and places, and (b) the community characteristics that correlate with diversity.

We nd that almost all communities—whether large immigrant gateways or small towns in the nation’s heartland—have grown more diverse. However, the data show a wide range of diversity pro les, from predominantly white communities (a shrinking number) to minority-majority and no-majority ones (an increasing number). The pace of local diversity gains, as well as shifts in racial-ethnic composition, has similarly varied.

While surging Hispanic and Asian populations often drive these patterns, other groups, including African immigrants, Native Americans, and multi-racial individuals, contribute to the distinctive mixes evident from one community to the next.

As for the correlates of diversity, communities with large populations, abundant rental housing, and a range of jobs are more diverse. So are those where the government and/or the military is a key employer. Locationally, diversity tends to be higher in coastal regions and along the southern border.

In short, a growing number of Americans now live in communities where multiple groups—Hispanics, blacks, and Asians as well as whites—are present in signi cant proportions.

Facts for Features: Hispanic Heritage Month 2012: Sept. 15 — Oct. 15

September 7, 2012 Comments off

Facts for Features: Hispanic Heritage Month 2012: Sept. 15 — Oct. 15
Source: U.S. Census Bureau

In September 1968, Congress authorized President Lyndon B. Johnson to proclaim National Hispanic Heritage Week, which was observed during the week that included Sept. 15 and Sept. 16. The observance was expanded in 1988 by Congress to a monthlong celebration (Sept. 15 — Oct. 15), effective the following year. America celebrates the culture and traditions of those who trace their roots to Spain, Mexico and the Spanish-speaking nations of Central America, South America and the Caribbean.

Sept. 15 was chosen as the starting point for the celebration because it is the anniversary of independence of five Latin American countries: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua. In addition, Mexico and Chile celebrate their independence days on Sept. 16 and Sept. 18, respectively.

Labor Force Characteristics by Race and Ethnicity, 2011

September 3, 2012 Comments off

Labor Force Characteristics by Race and Ethnicity, 2011 (PDF)
Source: U.S. Department of Labor

In 2011, the unemployment rate for the United States averaged 8.9 percent, but varied across race and ethnicity groups. The rates were highest for Blacks (15.8 percent) and for American Indians and Alaska Natives (14.6 percent) and lowest for Whites (7.9 percent) and for Asians (7.0 percent). The jobless rate was 13.6 percent for persons of two or more races, 11.5 percent for Hispanics, and 10.4 percent for Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders.

Differences in labor force characteristics emerge when the race and ethnicity groups are compared. These differences reflect a variety of factors, not all of which are measurable. These factors include variations across the groups in educational attainment; the occupations and industries in which the groups work; the geographic areas of the country in which the groups are concentrated, including whether they tend to reside in urban or rural settings; and the degree of discrimination encountered in the workplace.

This report describes the labor force characteristics and earnings patterns among the major race and ethnicity groups—Whites, Blacks, Asians, and Hispanics—and provides more detailed data through a set of supporting tables. These data are obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly survey of 60,000 households that is a rich source of information on the labor force.


August 25, 2012 Comments off

Source: White House

Latinos will continue to drive the growth of the labor force in the coming decades – as they will account for 60 percent of the Nation’s population growth between 2005 and 2050 – so how Latinos recover from this recession is of both immediate and long-term importance to our economy. However, according to the Pew Research Center, these same families also experienced a 66 percent decline in median wealth from 2005 to 2009.

Over the last three and a half years since taking office, the President and his Administration have worked to lay the groundwork for an America that is built to last, stopping the free-fall of the economy and working to restore the middle class. Every issue the President and this Administration take on is of vital importance to the Latino community: from promoting job creation, to making sure that every American has access to quality health care, to reforms that strengthen education for all Americans, to fighting for comprehensive immigration reform while standing up for the civil rights of all Americans.

To this end, the President has taken a series of steps to spur economic growth, put Americans back to work, and restore middle class security. As a result, over the last 29 months 4.5 million private sector jobs have been created putting Americans back to work and restoring economic security to Latino families struggling because of the economic crisis. And while still unacceptably high, the Hispanic unemployment has dropped to 10.3 percent from a high of more than 13 percent.

Racial and Ethnic Differences in Receipt of Unemployment Insurance Benefits During the Great Recession

July 30, 2012 Comments off

Racial and Ethnic Differences in Receipt of Unemployment Insurance Benefits During the Great Recession
Source: Urban Institute

The Great Recession hit black workers harder; the unemployment rate was higher for non-Hispanic black than for non-Hispanic white or Hispanic workers, and black unemployed workers had the lowest receipt of Unemployment Insurance benefits, 23.8 percent compared to whites’ 33.2 percent. Differences persist even after controlling for education, past employment, and reasons for unemployment.

The National Indian Education Study: 2011

July 25, 2012 Comments off

The National Indian Education Study: 2011

Source: National Center for Education Statistics

The National Indian Education Study (NIES) is designed to describe the condition of education for American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) students in the United States. NIES is conducted under the direction of the National Center for Education Statistics on behalf of the U.S. Department of Education’s Office of Indian Education. The results presented in this report focus on the performance of AI/AN fourth- and eighth-graders on the 2011 National Assessment of Educational Progress in reading and mathematics and on the educational experiences of AI/AN students based on NIES survey data.

Nationally representative samples of approximately 9,600 AI/AN students at grades 4 and 8 participated in the 2011 reading assessment and in the mathematics assessment. Students’ performance in 2011 is compared to earlier assessments in 2005, 2007, and 2009. Average reading and mathematics scores for AI/AN fourth- and eighth-graders in 2011 were not significantly different from the scores in either 2009 or 2005. At both grades 4 and 8, AI/AN students attending BIE schools scored lower on average in reading and mathematics than students attending public schools. Among the 12 states with samples large enough to report results for AI/AN students in both 2009 and 2011, average mathematics scores were lower in 2011 for fourth-graders in Montana and for eighth-graders in Minnesota and Utah. None of the participating states had a significant change in average reading scores from 2009 to 2011 at grade 4 or grade 8.

About 10,200 AI/AN students at grade 4 and 10,300 students at grade 8 participated in the 2011 NIES survey. Surveys were also completed by students’ teachers and school administrations. Results showed how the educational experiences of AI/AN students differed based on the type of school they attended and the proportion of AI/AN students in the school. For example, AI/AN students in BIE schools were more likely to report having some or a lot of knowledge about their AI/AN history, have teachers who reported learning about AI/AN students from living and working in the AI/AN community, and attend schools where members of the AI/AN community visit the school to discuss education issues.


July 2, 2012 Comments off

Source: Center on Education and the Workforce (Georgetown University)

In Healthcare, we provide detailed analyses and projections of healthcare fields, occupations, and their wages. In addition, we discuss the important skills and work values associated with healthcare fields and occupations. Finally, We analyze the implications of our findings for the racial, ethnic, and class diversity of the healthcare workforce in the coming decade.

The 10 Largest Hispanic Origin Groups: Characteristics, Rankings, Top Counties

June 29, 2012 Comments off

The 10 Largest Hispanic Origin Groups: Characteristics, Rankings, Top Counties
Source: Pew Hispanic Center

Among the 50.7 million Hispanics in the United States, nearly two-thirds (65%), or 33 million, self-identify as being of Mexican origin, according to tabulations of the 2010 American Community Survey (ACS) by the Pew Hispanic Center, a project of the Pew Research Center. No other Hispanic subgroup rivals the size of the Mexican-origin population. Puerto Ricans, the nation’s second largest Hispanic origin group, make up just 9% of the total Hispanic population in the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

Read the full report which includes these sections:

  • The demographics of each group
  • Educational attainment
  • English proficiency and citizenship
  • Economic and health insurance
  • Regional distribution of Hispanic origin groups
  • Changes in the characteristics of the Hispanic population

Ethnic Reunion and Cultural Affinity

June 28, 2012 Comments off

Ethnic Reunion and Cultural Affinity (PDF)
Source: Research Papers in Economics

Ethnic reunion is the propensity of tourists to travel to regions where their ancestors originate from, while cultural affinity is the propensity of tourists to travel to regions with a shared cultural identity. This paper uses a “world migration matrix”, which records the year-1500 origins of the current populations of 159 countries, in a standard tourism gravity equation to provide the first empirical evidence of the existence of both these tourism traits at the global level. Our results remain robust even when controlling for other historical links, such as colonial legacy and regional trade agreements. By controlling for trade flows, we also show that this impact is unique to tourism. Ethnic reunion and cultural affinity are thus important — and neglected — constituents of tourism patterns (and of research), with important policy implications.

Racial/Ethnic Disparities in the Prevalence of Selected Chronic Diseases Among US Air Force Members, 2008

June 27, 2012 Comments off

Racial/Ethnic Disparities in the Prevalence of Selected Chronic Diseases Among US Air Force Members, 2008
Source: Preventing Chronic Disease (CDC)

Few studies have evaluated possible racial/ethnic disparities in chronic disease prevalence among US Air Force active-duty members. Because members have equal access to free health care and preventive screening, the presence of health disparities in this population could offer new insight into the source of these disparities. Our objective was to identify whether the prevalence of 4 common chronic diseases differed by race/ethnicity in this population.

We compiled de-identified clinical and administrative data for Air Force members aged 21 or older who had been on active duty for at least 12 months as of October 2008 (N = 284,850). Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine the prevalence of hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, and asthma by race/ethnicity, controlling for rank and sex.

Hypertension was the most prevalent chronic condition (5.3%), followed by dyslipidemia (4.6%), asthma (0.9%), and diabetes (0.3%). Significant differences were noted by race/ethnicity for all conditions. Compared with non-Hispanic whites, the prevalence of all chronic diseases was higher for non-Hispanic blacks; disparities for adults of other minority race/ethnicity categories were evident but less consistent.

The existence of racial/ethnic disparities among active-duty Air Force members, despite equal access to free health care, indicates that premilitary health risks continue after enlistment. Racial and ethnic disparities in the prevalence of these chronic diseases suggest the need to ensure preventive health care practices and community outreach efforts are effective for racial/ethnic minorities, particularly non-Hispanic blacks.

The Rise of Asian-Americans

June 19, 2012 Comments off

The Rise of Asian-Americans

Source: Pew Social & Demographic Trends

Asian Americans are the highest-income, best-educated and fastest- growing race group in the U.S, with Asians now making up the largest share of recent immigrants. A Pew Research survey finds Asian Americans are more satisfied than the general public with their lives, finances and the direction of the country, and they place a greater value on marriage, parenthood, hard work and career success.

New From the GAO

June 15, 2012 Comments off

New GAO Reports
Source: Government Accountability Office

1. Indian Health Service:  Action Needed to Ensure Equitable Allocation of Resources for the Contract Health Service Program.  GAO-12-446, June 15.
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2. Managing for Results:  A Guide for Using the GPRA Modernization Act to Help Inform Congressional Decision Making.  GAO-12-621SP, June 15.

New From the GAO

May 30, 2012 Comments off

New GAO Reports and Press Release
Source: Government Accountability Office

+ Reports

1. Securities Regulation: Opportunities Exist to Improve SEC’s Oversight of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority.  GAO-12-625, May 30.
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Podcast -

2. VA Administrative Investigations: Improvements Needed in Collecting and Sharing Information.  GAO-12-483, April 30.
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3. Tribal Law and Order Act:  None of the Surveyed Tribes Reported Exercising the New Sentencing Authority, and the Department of Justice Could Clarify Tribal Eligibility for Certain Grant Funds.  GAO-12-658R, May 30.

4. Indigent Defense: Surveys of Grant Recipients, Select Tribes, and Indigent Defense Providers, an E-supplement to GAO-12-569.  GAO-12-661SP, May 2012.

5. GAO Schedule Assessment Guide: Best Practices for project schedules.  GAO-12-120G, May 2012.

+ Press Release

1. How Long Will This Project Really Take? GAO Issues Draft Schedule Assessment Guide; Second Volume in Series to Help Manage Government Projects, May 30.

Multiculturalism: Success, Failure, and the Future

May 18, 2012 Comments off
Source:  Migration Policy Institute

Despite substantial evidence to the contrary, a chorus of political leaders in Europe has declared multiculturalism policies a failure – in effect mischaracterizing the multiculturalism experiment, its future prospects, and its progress over the past three decades. This report challenges the recent rhetoric and addresses the advancement of policy areas for countries, examining factors that impede or facilitate successful the implementation of multiculturalism.

Most Children Younger Than Age 1 are Minorities, Census Bureau Reports

May 17, 2012 Comments off

Most Children Younger Than Age 1 are Minorities, Census Bureau ReportsSource: U.S. Census Bureau

The U.S. Census Bureau today released a set of estimates showing that 50.4 percent of our nation’s population younger than age 1 were minorities as of July 1, 2011. This is up from 49.5 percent from the 2010 Census taken April 1, 2010. A minority is anyone who is not single-race white and not Hispanic.

The population younger than age 5 was 49.7 percent minority in 2011, up from 49.0 percent in 2010. A population greater than 50 percent minority is considered “majority-minority.”

These are the first set of population estimates by race, Hispanic origin, age and sex since the 2010 Census. They examine population change for these groups nationally, as well as within all states and counties, between Census Day (April 1, 2010) and July 1, 2011. Also released were population estimates for Puerto Rico and its municipios by age and sex.

There were 114 million minorities in 2011, or 36.6 percent of the U.S. population. In 2010, it stood at 36.1 percent.

There were five majority-minority states or equivalents in 2011: Hawaii (77.1 percent minority), the District of Columbia (64.7 percent), California (60.3 percent), New Mexico (59.8 percent) and Texas (55.2 percent). No other state had a minority population greater than 46.4 percent of the total.

More than 11 percent (348) of the nation’s 3,143 counties were majority-minority as of July 1, 2011, with nine of these counties achieving this status since April 1, 2010. Maverick, Texas, had the largest share (96.8 percent) of its population in minority groups, followed by Webb, Texas (96.4 percent) and Wade Hampton Census Area, Alaska (96.2 percent).

CRS — Racial Profiling: Legal and Constitutional Issues

May 17, 2012 Comments off

Racial Profiling: Legal and Constitutional Issues
Source: Congressional Research Service (via Federation of American Scientists)

Racial profiling is the practice of targeting individuals for police or security detention based on their race or ethnicity in the belief that certain minority groups are more likely to engage in unlawful behavior. Examples of racial profiling by federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies are illustrated in legal settlements and data collected by governmental agencies and private groups, suggesting that minorities are disproportionately the subject of routine traffic stops and other security-related practices. The issue has periodically attracted congressional interest, particularly with regard to existing and proposed legislative safeguards, which include the proposed End Racial Profiling Act of 2011 (H.R. 3618/S. 1670) in the 112 th Congress. Several courts have considered the constitutional ramifications of the practice as an “unreasonable search and seizure” under the Fourth Amendment and, more recently, as a denial of the Fourteenth Amendment’s equal protection guarantee. A variety of federal and state statutes provide potential relief to individuals who claim that their rights are violated by race-based law enforcement practices and policies.


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