Archive for the ‘Oregon State University’ Category

Academic Women: Individual Considerations and Structural Forces in Navigating Academic Organizations

July 9, 2012 Comments off

Academic Women: Individual Considerations and Structural Forces in Navigating Academic Organizations (PDF)

Source: Oregon State University (Jennifer M. Almquist)

This dissertation is situated as the third work in a series on academic women. In 1964, Jessie Bernard published Academic Women, which provided a comprehensive assessment of the status of women in academia. Two decades later, in 1987, Angela Simeone offered insight into attempts to achieve equity for women in higher education in her book Academic Women: Workings Towards Equality. Now, at the next twentyfive year interval, this dissertation continues the scholarly engagement with questions about academic women. Drawing primarily on in-depth interviews with academic women (n = 35), this dissertation is more than a status update. The research presented here furthers the discussion by recognizing the limitations to the use of “academic women” as an all-encompassing category, and it offers a more nuanced approach to understanding their experiences in academia. Drawing on both the individual strategies of women and the organizational structure of the university this dissertation offers a new framework for assessing the various ways in which academic women navigate academic organizations. Additionally, lessons and practices are featured as recommendations and resources for both academic women and academic organizations.

Fuzzy Sets to Describe Driver Behavior in the Dilemma Zone of High-Speed Signalized Intersections

March 19, 2012 Comments off

Fuzzy Sets to Describe Driver Behavior in the Dilemma Zone of High-Speed Signalized Intersections

Source:  Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour
The Type II dilemma zone describes a segment of road on the approach to a signalized intersection where, if occupied by a motorist presented with the circular yellow indication, is likely to result in a motorist having difficulty deciding to stop at the stop line or proceed through the intersection. This phenomenon results in increased frequency of three failure conditions: rear-end collision at the stop line (excessive deceleration rates), the more severe right-angle crashes in the intersections, and left-turn head-on collisions (both resulting from incorrect estimates of clearance time). A more effective boundary definition for Type II dilemma zones could contribute to the safe design of signalized intersections. The prevailing approaches to dilemma zone delineation include the consideration of the vehicle’s travel time to the stop line or the driver’s likelihood of stopping at a particular distance from the stop line. The imprecision of the driver’s perception of speed and distance suggest that fuzzy logic may contribute to the identification of the Type II dilemma zone boundaries. A Fuzzy Logic (FL) model was constructed and validated from driver’s empirically observed behavior at high-speed signalized intersections. The research resulted in an increased understanding of the phenomenon which, when applied to the timing of signals and the placement of vehicle detection, can improve the overall safety of signalized intersections.

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