Archive for the ‘Gov – AU’ Category

AU — First-response police officers working in single person patrols: A literature review

August 21, 2012 Comments off

First-response police officers working in single person patrols: A literature review

Source:  Australian Institute of Criminology
The AIC undertook a literature review on single person police patrols both in Australia and internationally. This report examines challenges faced by first-response police officers when working alone and the impact this had on them, operational decisions to deploy single person patrols and how the community view this issue. It concludes that there has been limited research on single person patrols in policing and of the research findings available in the literature, results are mixed and updated research needs to be undertaken.

Report card shows Australia’s oceans are changing

August 17, 2012 Comments off

Report card shows Australia’s oceans are changing
Source: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO)

Launched today, the 2012 Marine Climate Change in Australia Report Card demonstrates that climate change is having significant impacts on Australia’s marine ecosystems.

The report card provides information about the current and predicted-future state of Australia’s marine climate and its impact on our marine biodiversity. The report card also outlines actions that are underway to help our marine ecosystems adapt to climate change.

Key findings show

  • warming sea temperatures are influencing the distribution of marine plants and animals, with species currently found in tropical and temperate waters likely to move south
  • new research suggests winds over the Southern Ocean and current dynamics are strongly influencing foraging of seabirds that breed in south-east Australia and feed close to the Antarctic each summer
  • some tropical fish species have a greater ability to acclimatise to rising water temperatures than previously thought
  • the Australian science community is widely engaged in research, monitoring and observing programs to increase our understanding of climate change impacts and inform management
  • adaptation planning is happening now, from seasonal forecast for fisheries and aquaculture, to climate-proofing of breeding sites for turtles and seabirds.

See: Report Card Shows Australia’s Oceans Are Changing (Science Daily)

Suicides, Australia, 2010

July 30, 2012 Comments off

Suicides, Australia, 2010
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics

Suicide is a major public health issue. Although death by suicide is relatively uncommon (approximately 1.6% of all deaths), the human costs are substantial and can impact broadly across communities. As such, suicide prevention is a key focus for both government agencies and non-government organisations.

Over recent years there have been two government enquiries which have made recommendations on improving suicide data. The Senate report – ‘The Hidden Toll: Suicide in Australia’, was released in June 2010. This report highlighted issues with data quality and availability, focussing especially on under-reporting of suicide deaths. The House of Representatives report – ‘Before it’s too late’ was released in July 2011. This report made specific recommendations on extending the scope of social and demographic data that is routinely collected on suicide deaths, and the availability of disaggregated data for research purposes.

The ABS has responded to challenges concerning the quality of suicide data through the implementation of new coding guidelines, and a three year revisions program for coroner certified deaths (see Chapter 2 for more information). This revisions process allows time for coroners to investigate potential suicide deaths and make a determination on whether the death was as a result of intentional self-harm.

In terms of expanding the availability of data on suicide, there were several additional data items, the importance of which were highlighted by the House of Representatives report – ‘Before it’s too late’, including ethnicity, culture, geography, educational attainment, employment status and socio-economic status. Many of these data items are not captured in current datasets, and the viability of collection in the future will need further investigation. However, additional information that can be publicly reported is available in current datasets. This information can provide further insight into the impacts of suicide across particular segments of the Australian community, and is presented in this report.

AU — Mental disorder prevalence at the gateway to the criminal justice system

July 12, 2012 Comments off

Mental disorder prevalence at the gateway to the criminal justice system
Source: Australian Institute of Criminology

Many criminal justice practitioners have observed that offenders experience poor mental health. While international studies have found mental health to be poorer among prisoners than in the general population, less information is available either about offenders who are not imprisoned or alleged offenders detained by police. The mental health of offenders is of key policy interest from both health service and crime prevention perspectives.

This is the first Australian study to measure the prevalence of mental disorder among offenders nationally, using information provided by 690 police detainees who participated in the Australian Institute of Criminology’s Drug Use Monitoring in Australia (DUMA) program. Around half reported having been diagnosed with a mental disorder in the past.

The study was also the first to use the Corrections Mental Health Screen (CMHS), an instrument validated for gender-specific screening, on an Australian offender population. Results suggest that almost half of detainees may have a diagnosable mental disorder at the time of arrest, including 42 percent of women and 28 percent of men with no previous diagnosis. In the routine screening of police detainees as they enter the criminal justice system, the CMHS could be used to identify for the first time those who would benefit from psychological assessment and appropriate intervention.

AU — Firearm trafficking and serious and organised crime gangs

July 6, 2012 Comments off

Firearm trafficking and serious and organised crime gangs
Source: Australian Institute of Criminology

Despite strict regulations on the import, export, ownership, use, transfer and storage of licit firearms, there exists in Australia a potentially large pool of illicit firearms, some of which are acquired, stockpiled and used for serious and organised crime. This report follows a modest group of publicly released examinations of firearm trafficking operations in Australia, to describe what can be determined about the composition and maintenance of the illicit firearm market, its use by serious and organised crime groups and the diversity of transaction arrangements used to vend illicit firearms.

Australian Social Trends — March 2012

March 30, 2012 Comments off

Australian Social Trends — March 2012
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics
+ Life on ‘Struggle Street’: Australians in low economic resource households
This article looks at the characteristics of people in households with both relatively low income and relatively low wealth.
+ Love Me Do
This article examines the trends in marriage, de facto relationships and divorce over the last twenty years.
+ Life after Homelessness
This article presents a comparison of people who have been homeless in the last 10 years with those who have never been homeless.
+ Disability and Work
This article looks at the characteristics of working-age people with disability and their involvement in the labour force.

Causes of Death, Australia, 2010

March 22, 2012 Comments off

Causes of Death, Australia, 2010
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics

nformation contained in the preceding chapters of this publication refer to deaths registered during the 2010 calendar year. In this chapter, death statistics are based on a year of occurrence, that is, the year in which the death actually occurred, rather than the year it was registered. The presentation of year of occurrence data in this publication facilitates international comparisons.

There are a proportion of deaths that occur in a year which are not registered until subsequent years. The international standard for publishing on a year of occurrence basis is to include deaths registered within the relevant occurrence year, and deaths for that same occurrence year which are registered the year immediately following. For example, deaths occuring in 2009 that have been registered in both 2009 and 2010 are presented below.

Analysis of deaths in Australia has shown that the number of deaths registered after the second year are not significant; that is, there is a very small number of deaths registered after the second year.

Year of occurrence data allow for seasonal analysis, and data are not distorted by the effects of late registrations or changes in time lags in processing registrations. In those countries where registration systems are complete and timely, there is not a significant difference between the number of deaths derived on a year of registration basis and those on a year of occurrence basis.

For Australia, approximately 95% of deaths registered in a particular year occurred in that year. However, variations can occur in certain subsets of the population and for particular causes of death. For instance, while 94.8% of the total 140,760 deaths registered in 2009 occurred in the same year, only 86.7% of the 2,405 Indigenous deaths and 91.6% of 9,043 deaths due to External causes registered in 2009 occurred in that year. More detailed data for specific causes or population groups are available from the ABS on request.

Australian crime: Facts & figures: 2011

March 16, 2012 Comments off

Australian crime: Facts & figures: 2011
Source: Australian Institute of Criminology

Australian Crime: Facts & Figures is an up-to-date snapshot of crime patterns and trends in Australia. It contains information on specific crimes, victims, offenders, the location of criminal acts and the operation of criminal justice systems—focusing on the work of police, courts and prisons.

AU — Directory of Family and Domestic Violence Statistics, 2011

February 2, 2012 Comments off
Source:  Australian Bureau of Statistics
Provides an on-line reference point for sources of data relating to Family and Domestic Violence (FDV) that are collected by, or on behalf of, Australian and State and Territory Government agencies. Directory entries provide information about the purpose, type of collection, frequency, history and range of FDV-related data available from each collection. Contact details, including links to source agencies are also provided as well as information about publications and further data availability for each source.

Australia’s Pacific Seasonal Worker Pilot Scheme: Managing vulnerabilities to exploitation

February 1, 2012 Comments off
Source:  Australian Institute of Criminology
Australia is not immune to the risks of labour trafficking; labour shortages, sector tolerance to illegal work practices and the recruitment of vulnerable workers can result in labour exploitation (David 2010). The horticultural sector in Australia is experiencing some of these risks and Pacific Islanders are a vulnerable migrant group working in this sector.
Australia’s Pacific Seasonal Worker Pilot Scheme (PSWPS) aims to create a safe pathway for unskilled or low-skilled Pacific Islanders to temporarily work in Australia’s horticultural sector. Recent research by the AIC suggests that addressing labour trafficking does not just involve prosecuting the most extreme cases but should also have a focus on preventing and reducing a broader spectrum of practices that create an environment that is tolerant, or even encouraging, of exploitation (David 2010). While the PSWPS is not an anti-trafficking program, it has been designed and piloted to prevent a broad spectrum of poor or illegal labour practices and therefore may assist to prevent labour trafficking in Australia and regionally. This paper provides an analysis of the PSWPS and examines emerging evidence about how the program manages risks of exploitation of overseas temporary workers from the Pacific Islands.

AU — Disability, Ageing and Carers, Australia: Disability and Long Term Health Conditions, 2009

January 5, 2012 Comments off
Source:  Australian Bureau of Statistics

Disability, Ageing and Carers, Australia: Disability and Long Term Health Conditions, 2009 (cat. no. 4433.0) presents a suite of data cubes examining the relationship between disability and long term health conditions. The tables include broad level information on the numbers of people with long term health conditions in each of the States of Australia (ACT and NT are not included). They also include information on some of the most common long term health conditions, the degree to which these restrict people with disability and the causes underlying main conditions.

Several tables provide detailed information on five impairment groups – sensory, intellectual, physical, psychological and head injury (an impairment is where there is loss or abnormality in body structure or the way in which the body or mind work). Impairment groups are examined with relation to living arrangements and to the restrictions particular impairments place on daily living (personal care, schooling and employment). There is also information on the need for, and receipt of, assistance in relation to impairment groups.

Several tables provide information on specific age groups – children (0-14 years), working age adults (15-64 years) and people aged 65 years and over.

AU — Respectful Reporting: Victims of Violent Crime Media Strategy 2011-2012

January 4, 2012 Comments off
Source:  New South Wales Victims Services, Department of Attorney General and Justice

Current data from the NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research identifies that violent crime is stable or falling in most categories however the potential for victims to be traumatised by stories in the media continues to be a challenge.

Respectful Reporting: Victims of Violent Crime Media Strategy promotes responsible reporting of violent crime and encourages the media to consider the potential impact that their report could have on a victim. The NSW Government, led by the NSW Department of Attorney General and Justice (DAGJ) will work in partnership with the media, Government and non-Government agencies and victims to achieve the goals of the strategy.

The Respectful Reporting: Victims of Violent Crime Media Strategy has been developed in consultation with DAGJ, Homicide Victims Support Group (Aus) Inc (HVSG), Victims of Crime Assistance League (VOCAL), Enough is Enough, Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions (ODPP), as well as the Department of Human Services NSW – Ageing, Disability and Home Care and the Violence Prevention Coordination Unit, Office for Women’s Policy, NSW Department of Premier & Cabinet, and provides key policy directions and priorities for the next two years.

The strategy has also been developed in collaboration with the Journalism Education Association of Australia (JEAA). We acknowledge the work they have already done in this area and look forward to continuing this collaborative approach.

Household Use of Information Technology, Australia, 2010-11

December 29, 2011 Comments off
Source:  Australian Bureau of Statistics

There are two components to this release: web based information and datacubes. This release includes information related to: household internet and computer access; type of household internet access; personal internet use; internet and computer use by persons with a disability; and internet and computer use by persons aged 60 years and over. Web based information includes graphs with associated commentary. Detailed data classified by geographic and socio-economic variables are presented in the datacubes.

Sports and Physical Recreation: A Statistical Overview, Australia, 2011

December 28, 2011 Comments off
Source:  Australian Bureau of Statistics

This publication presents a statistical overview of sport and recreation in Australia, using the latest data available from a diverse range of ABS and other collections. The dominant focus is on sport and physical recreation, with data also being presented for other selected leisure areas.

AU — Misperceptions about child sex offenders

December 21, 2011 Comments off

Misperceptions about child sex offenders
Source: Australian Institute of Criminology

Sexual offending against children is a highly emotive issue. It is nonetheless important that public policy initiatives to prevent and/or respond to child sexual abuse are based on the available evidence about child sex offenders.

This paper addresses five common misperceptions about the perpetrators of sexual offences against children. Specifically, the issues addressed include whether all child sex offenders are ‘paedophiles’, who sexually abuse children, whether most child sex offenders were victims of sexual abuse themselves, rates of recidivism among child sex offenders and the number of children sex offenders typically abuse before they are detected by police.

The evidence outlined in this paper highlights that there are few black and white answers to these questions. Perpetrators of sexual crimes against children are not, contrary to widespread opinion, a homogenous group. Rather, there are a number of varied offending profiles that characterise child sex offenders. Gaining an understanding of the nuances of this offender population is critical if children are to be protected from sexual abuse.

AU — Misuse of the Non-Profit Sector for Money Laundering and Terrorism Financing

December 14, 2011 Comments off
Source:  Australian Institute of Criminology

The manner in which terrorist organisations finance their activities became a policy focal point after the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001. Non-profit organisations, and charities in particular, were identified as potentially significant contributors to terrorism financing. This premise was based on known links between charitable giving and prominent terrorist groups, and the vulnerabilities of the non-profit sector to misuse.

Money laundering and terrorism financing (ML/TF) risks to the Australian non-profit sector are thought to be low. However, the impact of such misuse is inevitably high. One of the underlying premises in combating non-profit misuse has been the application of a response proportionate to risk. Australia has based its response on education, sector outreach and peak body codes of conduct, alongside more conventional forms of regulatory control.

This paper examines vulnerabilities to ML/TF misuse and the publicly available evidence for actual misuse. It is suggested that the Australian response could incorporate a more uniform commitment from the sector to adopting risk-based strategies, with government providing education for the sector that is based on the identification of specific points of vulnerability.

AU — A Perspective on Research Challenges in Information Security

December 8, 2011 Comments off

A Perspective on Research Challenges in Information Security
Source: Australian Government Department of Defence (Defence Science and Technology Organisation)

This report considers a number of selected areas of security technology and practice. The focus is on exposing and highlighting research gaps and opportunities in the current security state of the art within these areas, both in terms of implementation practice and of the literature.

Deaths, Australia, 2010

November 14, 2011 Comments off

Deaths, Australia, 2010
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics

This publication brings together statistics on deaths and mortality in Australia. Data refer to deaths registered during the calendar year shown, unless otherwise stated. State or territory relates to state or territory of usual residence, unless otherwise stated.

Populations used in the calculation of death rates for 2006 and earlier years are the final estimated resident population by age and sex based on results of the 2006 Census of Population and Housing (2006 Census) and earlier censuses. Death rates for 2009 are calculated using revised 30 June 2009 estimated resident population, while rates for 2010 are calculated using preliminary 30 June 2010 estimated resident population.

Policing licensed premises in the Australian Capital Territory

October 30, 2011 Comments off

Policing licensed premises in the Australian Capital Territory
Source: Australian Institute of Criminology

There is an old joke that says that an Australian’s definition of a drinking problem is being in a situation where you can’t get a drink. This reflects Australia’s well-established reputation for being a community where the consumption of alcohol, frequently at excessive and harmful levels, is associated with many forms of entertainment and participation in social events. In other words, the association between alcohol consumption and the enjoyment of social activity is a deeply embedded cultural phenomenon.

However, the evidence relating to the range of individual and social harms associated with alcohol misuse is strong. In 2007, one in four Australians were a victim of alcohol-related verbal abuse, 13 percent were put in fear and 4.5 percent of Australians aged 14 years or older had been physically abused by someone under the influence of alcohol (AIHW 2008). The rates of physical and verbal abuse by a person affected by alcohol are more than twice the rate for other drug types. Alcohol-related crime and disorder also has a significant adverse impact upon the perceptions of safety among the broader community.

At the same time, Australia also has a substantial reputation for developing and implementing innovative policy approaches to trying to reduce the harms associated with excessive alcohol use and violence in particular. Many of these initiatives have been focused on regulatory responses that target licensed premises and liquor outlets. Licensed premises are a high-risk setting for alcohol-related violence, with a large proportion of assaults occurring in or within very close proximity to hotels and nightclubs. Furthermore, both patrons and staff of licensed premises are at a heightened risk of becoming involved in a violent incident compared with other locations.

Over the years, police and liquor regulatory authorities, often in partnership with liquor licensees, have committed significant effort and resources to efforts to improve the overall safety of drinking venues and the overall amenity of the nearby community. Unfortunately, often what has been missing from such efforts has been any systematic assessment of their relative effectiveness and methods for sharing the lessons learned.

This report is part of an attempt to redress this knowledge deficit. Undertaken in close partnership with Australian Capital Territory Policing (ACTP), the project was a detailed study of the effectiveness of a series of policing measures implemented by the ACTP over several months to reduce and prevent alcohol-related violence in and around licensed premises and entertainment precincts in the ACT.

As with similar studies previously conducted here and overseas, the project found mixed results in relation to effectiveness. However, the project was able to help identify and explain what things were working and why, thereby providing a series of evidence-based recommendations for future policing in this area, many of which it is pleasing to note have already been adopted by ACTP.

General Social Survey: Summary Results, Australia, 2010

October 3, 2011 Comments off

General Social Survey: Summary Results, Australia, 2010
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics

Presents results of the 2010 General Social Survey, which brings together a wide range of information to enable it to be linked across areas of social concern. The focus is on the relationships between characteristics from different areas, rather than in depth information about a particular field. Topics include health, housing, education, work, income, financial stress and resilience, broad assets and liabilities, transport, social capital, voluntary work, family and community, and crime. Provides an overview through summary tables for different population groups and selected themes. More detailed cross classified tables also cover selected themes.


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