Archive for the ‘Statistics Canada’ Category

CA — Police-reported crime statistics, 2011

July 26, 2012 Comments off

Police-reported crime statistics, 2011
Source: Statistics Canada

The police-reported crime rate, which measures the overall volume of crime, continued its long-term downward trend in 2011, declining 6% from 2010. The Crime Severity Index, which measures the severity of crime, also fell 6%.

Adult criminal court statistics in Canada, 2010/2011

June 8, 2012 Comments off

Adult criminal court statistics in Canada, 2010/2011
Source: Statistics Canada
One of the key components of Canada’s criminal justice system is the courts. The criminal court system consists of multiple levels of court with responsibility shared between federal, provincial and territorial governments. Each court is responsible for making decisions regarding the culpability of those accused of a criminal offence. In addition, for those found guilty (or who plead guilty), courts are responsible for determining an appropriate sentence to be imposed (Department of Justice Canada 2005b).

Using data from the adult component of the 2010/2011 Integrated Criminal Court Survey (ICCS), this Juristat article presents information on the characteristics of criminal court cases involving adults (18 years and older).1 More specifically, it examines the number and types of cases completed in adult criminal courts, the decisions made in relation to these cases and the sentences imposed upon those found guilty. In addition, this article looks briefly at the length of time taken to complete adult criminal court cases and the factors that influence timeliness.

It is important to note that the data presented in this article represent approximately 95% of the caseload completed in Canadian adult criminal courts. In 2010/2011, information from superior courts in Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan as well as municipal courts in Quebec (which accounted for about one-quarter of all Criminal Code charges in that province) was unavailable.

Canada — Perspectives on Labour and Income: Youth neither enrolled nor employed

June 8, 2012 Comments off
Source:  Statistics Canada
+ The percentage of all Canadian youth age 15 to 29 that are neither in education nor employment (NEET) has ranged between 12% and 14% over the past decade, a rate that is relatively low among the G7 countries.
+ In 2011, 44% of all youth were students and 43% were employed. The remaining 13% were NEET— 5.7% unemployed and 7.5% not in the labour force (NILF).
+ About 55,000 youth had been looking for a job for more than six months in 2011, representing 1% of all youth and 14% of unemployed youth.
+ Lower levels of education were associated with higher rates of youth unemployment and long-term unemployment.
+ Of the 82% of NILF youth who did not want a job, 5% had future work arrangements, 6% were permanently unable to work, 7% were non-traditional students, 20% had no known activity but had young children at home, and 44% had no known activity and no children at home.

Victimization of older Canadians, 2009

March 16, 2012 Comments off

Victimization of older Canadians, 2009
Source: Statistics Canada

Canadians aged 55 and older constitute one of the fastest growing populations in the country. In the coming decades, it is projected that Canada’s population will continue to age considerably, with the proportion of Canadians aged 55 and older rising from 27% in 2011 to 35% in 2031 (Statistics Canada 2010a). This is due to a variety of factors, including aging baby boomers, decreasing fertility rates and an increase in life expectancy (Schellenberg and Turcotte 2007).

This shift in Canada’s age structure has numerous implications for Canadian society, including impacts on the economy, the healthcare system, and social services (Certified General Accountants Association of Canada 2005). The aging population is also expected to impact Canada’s justice system in a variety of sectors, including policing, corrections and victim services (Payne 2005; CSC 2010).

Historically, older Canadians have reported some of the lowest victimization rates (Ogrodnik 2007); however, some studies have suggested that victimization against seniors will increase as the population expands (Sev’er 2009). Conversely, other research suggests that rates of victimization will decrease, as younger groups most at risk for victimization age (Boe 2010; Carrington 2001). In recent years, the Canadian government has developed initiatives aimed at meeting the needs of older victims and helping to inform policy decisions related to victimization and abuse (National Seniors Council 2007).

Using data from the 2009 General Social Survey (GSS) on Victimization, this Juristat article examines trends in the victimization of older Canadians, namely those aged 55 and older living in the 10 provinces.1,2 In addition to examining the nature and prevalence of both violent victimization and household victimization against older Canadians, this Juristat article explores older Canadians’ experiences of emotional and financial abuse and their experiences of Internet victimization. Finally, this study examines reporting of victimization incidents to police, the emotional and financial consequences of victimization, as well as older Canadians’ perceptions of personal safety, their sense of community belonging, and their use of crime prevention methods among both victims and non-victims.

Canadians’ perceptions of personal safety and crime, 2009

December 6, 2011 Comments off

Canadians’ perceptions of personal safety and crime, 2009
Source: Statistics Canada

The effects of crime are vast and varied, and may result in many physical, financial, and emotional consequences for those directly involved. Moreover, the effects of crime can extend beyond victims (Jackson 2006, Gardner 2008). Previous research has shown that indirect exposure to crime can impact feelings of security within entire communities, and may create a fear of crime. Fear of crime refers to the fear, rather than the probability, of being a victim of crime, and may not be reflective of the actual prevalence of crime (Fitzgerald 2008).

Self-reported victimization data have shown that, in Canada, rates of victimization have remained stable over the past decade (Perreault and Brennan 2010). In the same vein, police-reported data has shown decreases in both the amount and severity of crime, with the crime rate reaching its lowest point since 1973 (Brennan and Dauvergne 2011). Despite these findings, crime continues to remain an issue of concern for many Canadians.

Using data from the 2009 General Social Survey (GSS) on Victimization, this Juristat article examines the perceptions of personal safety and crime of Canadians 15 years and older living in the 10 provinces. More specifically, it looks at their overall level of satisfaction with their personal safety from crime over time at the national, provincial and census metropolitan area levels. In addition, this article examines Canadians’ feelings of safety when performing various activities in their communities, and their use of crime prevention techniques in the previous 12 months. Finally, Canadians’ perceptions of the prevalence of crime and social disorder in their neighbourhoods are explored.

Homicide in Canada, 2010

November 10, 2011 Comments off

Homicide in Canada, 2010
Source: Statistics Canada

Homicide in Canada is a relatively rare event. In 2010, there were 554 homicides in Canada—representing less than 1% of violent incidents reported to police (Brennan and Dauvergne 2011). Information gathered from the Homicide Survey plays an important role in measuring crime in Canada, particularly in identifying trends over time. Homicide is more likely than other crimes to be reported to police, to be the subject of thorough investigation and, in turn, to be captured in official statistics (Nivette 2011; Van Dijk 2008; Gannon et al. 2005). For this reason, the rate of homicide has been viewed as a “social barometer” and as one indicator of the health of a nation (Marshall and Block 2004).

This Juristat article presents 2010 homicide data, marking the 50th consecutive year for which this information has been collected by Statistics Canada. Trends in gang-related homicide, homicides involving firearms, homicides by youth, and intimate partner homicide are highlighted. This report also presents a profile of homicides involving accused persons with a suspected mental or developmental disorder.

Canada — Health Indicators 2011

November 2, 2011 Comments off

Health Indicators 2011 (PDF)
Source: Statistics Canada (Canadian Institute for Health Information)

Health Indicators 2011, the 12th in a series of annual flagship reports, presents the most recent data from the Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI) and Statistics Canada on a broad range of measures. This report seeks to answer two fundamental questions: “How healthy are Canadians?” and “How healthy is the Canadian health system?” The indicators were selected based on directions provided at three National Consensus Conferences on Health Indicators.

Each indicator falls into one of the five dimensions of the internationally recognized Health Indicator Framework:

  • Health status — provides insight into the health of Canadians, including well-being, human function and selected health conditions.
  • Non-medical determinants of health — reflects factors outside of the health system that affect health.
  • Health system performance — provides insight into the quality of health services, including accessibility, appropriateness, effectiveness and patient safety.
  • Community and health system characteristics — useful contextual information, rather than direct measures of health status or quality of care.
  • Equity – provides insight into health disparities.

In addition to presenting the latest indicator results, this year’s report introduces three new indicators that are focused on mental health. In Canada, as in many countries, mental illnesses are among the 20 leading causes of disability and are associated with death by suicide. Seventy percent of mental illnesses develop at a young age, they often persist over time and they affect people of all cultures and socio-economic status. They are also costly to the health system. In Canada, when taking into account costs associated with the reduction in health-related quality of life, loss of productivity in the workplace and direct costs of mental health services and supports, the economic impact of mental illnesses was estimated to be $52 billion in 2006 by the Institute of Health Economics.

Money laundering in Canada, 2009

July 13, 2011 Comments off

Money laundering in Canada, 2009
Source: Statistics Canada

In recent years, the issue of money laundering has been highlighted as an emerging problem both in Canada and internationally (FINTRAC 2011). In Canada, it is estimated that the amount of money laundered on an annual basis is somewhere between $5 and $15 billion (RCMP 2011). Worldwide, it has been estimated that this figure may be as high as $500 billion to $1 trillion in U.S. currency (FINTRAC 2011).

According to the Criminal Code, money laundering, also referred to as laundering proceeds of crime, occurs when an individual or group uses, transfers, sends, delivers, transports, transmits, alters, disposes of or otherwise deals with, any property or proceeds of any property that was obtained as a result of criminal activity. This is done with the intent to conceal or convert illegal assets into legitimate funds.

An example of money laundering would involve a person who sells illegal drugs, and then uses the profit to purchase legal goods to sell through a legitimate business. Previous research suggests that money laundering schemes are often associated with the illegal drug trade or the defrauding and manipulation of Canada’s financial institutions (FINTRAC2011). Some authorities, including the RCMP, have found that money laundering is often related to organized criminal and/or terrorist activity (FINTRAC 2011RCMP 2011).

Police-reported hate crime in Canada, 2009

July 2, 2011 Comments off

Police-reported hate crime in Canada, 2009
Source: Statistics Canada

The composition of Canada’s cultural, social, linguistic and religious population is rapidly changing. Between the two most recent census years (2001 and 2006), for example, the proportion of visible minorities in Canada grew 27% while those whose mother tongue was neither French nor English rose 18% (Statistics Canada 2008). Over the same period, the number of same-sex couples, including legally married and common-law partners, increased 33% (Milan, Vézina and Wells 2009). Furthermore, between 1991 and 2001, Canada’s religious make-up changed, with some of the largest increases among those who reported Muslim, Hindu, Sikh and Buddhist denominations (Statistics Canada 2003).

With such diversity in the country, discrimination or bias can arise (Boeckmann and Turpin-Petrosino 2002). Some of these incidents may occur in the form of hate crimes, defined as criminal offences motivated by hate towards an identifiable group. Hate crimes may target race, colour, national or ethnic origin, religion, sexual orientation, mental or physical disability, language, sex, age, or any other similar factor (such as profession or political beliefs).

The importance of collecting data on hate crimes has been recognized throughout the world. According to the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, 47 of 56 participating countries across North America, Europe and Asia compile at least some data on hate crimes (OSCE 2010). In Canada, data on hate crimes are collected by Statistics Canada via the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Survey.

Income of Canadians (2009)

June 17, 2011 Comments off

Income of Canadians (2009)
Source: Statistics Canada

Median after-tax income for Canadian families of two or more people amounted to $63,800 in 2009, virtually unchanged from 2008. This was the second consecutive year without significant change in after-tax income following four years of growth.

While the after-tax income remained stable for most types of families in 2009, its three main components (market income, government transfers and income tax) moved in different directions. Median market income and income tax declined for most family types. At the same time, median transfers from governments to families increased by $1,400 to $6,200.

The median after-tax income for two-parent families with children amounted to $75,600, while for senior families it was $46,800.

After-tax income for unattached individuals remained stable at $25,500, though this was not the case for all unattached individuals. For senior unattached individuals, the median rose 4.5% to $23,300.

Violent victimization of Aboriginal women in the Canadian provinces, 2009

May 30, 2011 Comments off

Violent victimization of Aboriginal women in the Canadian provinces, 2009
Source: Statistics Canada

In Canada, numerous programs and policies have been developed to address violence against women (Johnson and Dawson 2010; Status of Women Canada 2002). Despite these efforts, previous studies have shown that violence against women in Canada continues to be a persistent and ongoing problem, one that is compounded for Aboriginal women (Brzozowski 2006). Given these findings, it is important to differentiate between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women’s experiences of victimization, to better understand the extent of violence against Aboriginal women and the context in which it occurs.

One source of information that can be used to measure violence against Aboriginal women in Canada is the General Social Survey (GSS) on Victimization. By asking respondents aged 15 years or older to recount their experiences of victimization, the GSS captures detailed information on criminal incidents that may or may not have been brought to the attention of police.

Using GSS data from 2009, this article looks at the prevalence and nature of self-reported violence against Aboriginal women in the ten provinces.123 In addition, reporting of victimization to police, victims’ use of formal and informal support services, and the consequences of violent victimization are discussed. Finally, this report examines Aboriginal women’s perceptions of personal safety and their satisfaction with the criminal justice system.

Trends in the use of remand in Canada

May 23, 2011 Comments off

Trends in the use of remand in Canada
Source: Statistics Canada

Over the last decade, the composition of Canada’s correctional population has changed, most notably as a result of an increase in the number of adults admitted to custody on remand. Remand is the temporary detention of a person while awaiting trial, sentencing or the commencement of a custodial disposition. According to the Criminal Code, adults and youth can be admitted to remand for a variety of reasons, including to ensure attendance in court, for the protection or safety of the public or to maintain public confidence in the justice system.

An increase in the adult remand population can have a number of repercussions on the operations of correctional services. For example, correctional costs can increase as can the challenges for managing the safety and well-being of the remand population. Also, planning correctional space can become increasingly difficult since the length of time an individual spends in remand is not predictable (Johnson, 2003).

Using data drawn primarily from the Adult Correctional Services (ACS) Survey, the Youth Custody and Community Services (YCCS) Survey, the Integrated Correctional Services Survey (ICSS) and the Key Indicator Reports (KIR) for Adults and Youth, this Juristat article analyses recent trends in the use of remand in Canada. As the principles and legislation governing detainment differ for adults and youth, separate analyses are presented for each population group.

Legal Aid in Canada: Resource and Caseload Statistics

April 22, 2011 Comments off

Legal Aid in Canada: Resource and Caseload Statistics
Source: Statistics Canada

  1. In 2009/2010, legal aid plans spent $762 million on providing legal aid services in 11 provinces and territories, 1  which amounts to about $23 for every Canadian. After adjusting for inflation, legal aid spending was up about 4% from the previous year (Table 4).
  2. With the exception of Quebec and Ontario, legal aid plans spent more on criminal matters than civil matters in 2009/2010. The Quebec legal aid plan allocated 43% of its direct expenditures to criminal matters, while in Ontario the figure was 47%. In the other jurisdictions the proportion of direct expenditures on criminal matters ranged from 56% for Alberta to 74% for Saskatchewan and the Northwest Territories (Table 6).
  3. Legal aid in Canada is funded primarily by provincial/territorial and federal governments. In 2009/2010, legal aid plans reported receiving funding totalling over $721 million with 93% of this amount coming from government sources. 2  Other funding is received by way of client contributions, cost recovery monies and contributions from the legal profession (Table 1-1).
  4. Provincial and territorial governments directly fund both criminal and civil legal aid. The $547 million contribution in 2009/2010 represented a 6% increase from the previous year (after inflation) and marked the fifth consecutive annual increase. In 2009/2010, funding was up in 9 of the 13 jurisdictions (after inflation), led by Manitoba at 31% (Table 3).
  5. The federal government contributes directly to the cost of criminal legal aid only. In 2009/2010, funding for all 13 jurisdictions totalled $112 million. After adjusting for inflation, this figure was down slightly from the year before (Table 2).
  6. About 745,000 applications for legal assistance were received by legal aid plans in the 11 reporting provinces and territories in 2009/2010, a decline of 5% from the previous year. The decline was driven by fewer civil legal aid applications as the number of criminal legal aid applications remained unchanged. Civil matters accounted for over half (55%) of applications received (Table 10).
  7. In 2009/2010, the reporting legal aid plans approved almost 500,000 applications for full legal aid services (including providing information, advice and representation in court), a decrease of 1% from the previous year. 3  Criminal matters accounted for over half (56%) of approved applications (Table 12).
  8. In the reporting provinces and territories, almost 10,000 lawyers from both the private sector and legal aid plans provided legal aid assistance in 2009/2010, a decline of 2% from the previous year. Private lawyers accounted for 87% of those providing legal aid services, while legal aid plan staff lawyers accounted for the remaining 13%. (Table 20). 4

Canada — Women and the Criminal Justice System

April 4, 2011 Comments off

Women and the Criminal Justice System
Source: Statistics Canada

The involvement of women and girls in the criminal justice system has largely been as crime victims rather than as perpetrators. While females make up about half of violent crime victims, they represent a minority of offenders. However, in order to understand the scope of issues related to women and the criminal justice system it is important to look at the incidence and experience of crime against women, as well as women as offenders. It is because of the relatively small number of females committing crimes that it is crucial to closely monitor female offending patterns. Otherwise, differences in the experiences of women and girls in the criminal justice system may be masked by trends that reflect the larger male offender population. This information is necessary to assess responses by the justice and social systems to females who offend and in the development of gender-informed crime prevention strategies. The following chapter explores the prevalence and nature of female victimization, female criminality as well as the processing of female offenders through the criminal justice system in Canada.

Criminal harassment in Canada, 2009

March 9, 2011 Comments off

Criminal harassment in Canada, 2009
Source: Statistics Canada

Criminal harassment, commonly referred to as stalking, refers to repeated conduct that is carried out over a period of time that causes victims to reasonably fear for their safety (Department of Justice, 2004). Examples of criminal harassment include repeatedly following or communicating with another person; repeatedly watching someone’s house or workplace; or directly threatening another person or member of their family causing a person to fear for their safety or for the safety of someone known to them.1 While criminal harassment legislation was introduced in 1993 in response to violence against women, the law applies equally to all victims. The goal of the legislation is to identify and respond to criminal harassment before it escalates into serious physical harm to victims and to prohibit deliberate conduct that is psychologically harmful to others in causing them to fear for their safety (Department of Justice, 2004).

Using data from the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Survey and the Adult Criminal Court Survey, this Juristat Bulletin presents the most up-to-date information on police-reported incidents and court cases involving criminal harassment. Unless otherwise noted, data from the UCR Survey reflect all incidents of criminal harassment reported to police. It is important to note, however, that these data likely under-estimate the true extent of criminal harassment in Canada as not all incidents come to the attention of legal authorities. For example, self-reported data from 2009 indicate that about 3 in 10 Canadians (29%) who had been violently victimized in the previous year contacted police to report the incident (Perreault and Brennan, 2009).

Canada — Production and Value of Honey and Maple Products

February 16, 2011 Comments off

Production and Value of Honey and Maple Products
Source: Statistics Canada
From Highlights:

In 2010, production of honey amounted to 74.3 million pounds, roughly 4.0 million pounds, or 5.6%, more than in 2009.

Beekeepers’ average yield of honey amounted to 120 pounds per colony, up slightly from 119 pounds in 2009. Beekeepers in Alberta, who produce over one-third of honey in Canada, reported a decline in yield from 116 pounds per colony to 106 pounds.

Yields varied from region to region. Production on the Prairies was less than expected because of an early spring and wet cool weather. In the Eastern and Central provinces, beekeepers reported better than average production, reflecting warm temperatures and sunny days.

Canada had 7,284 beekeepers in 2010, 256 more than in 2009. They managed 617,264 beehives in 2010, an increase of 25,144.

In 2009, the total value of honey produced amounted to $126.3 million, up by $21.1 million (+20.0%) from 2008.

Maple Products
In 2010, farmers produced 7.2 million gallons of maple syrup products, 19.9% less than the record high of 9.0 million gallons in 2009 that was the result of favourable weather conditions.

The total value of the 2010 maple syrup products reached $280.9 million, down 20.6% from 2009.

Quebec farmers, who account for over 90% of Canadian maple syrup products, produced 6.6 million gallons in 2010, down by 1.6 million gallons from what was an exceptional year for them in 2009. In 2010, the average price for maple products in Quebec was $36.82 per gallon, compared with $37.45 in 2009. Maple products include maple syrup, maple sugar and maple butter.


Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 360 other followers