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Prevalence of Uncontrolled Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease: United States, 1999–2010

August 15, 2012 Comments off

Prevalence of Uncontrolled Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease: United States, 1999–2010

Source: National Center for Health Statistics

Key findings

Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

  • In 2009–2010, about 47% of adults had at least one of three risk factors for cardiovascular disease—uncontrolled high blood pressure, uncontrolled high levels of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) cholesterol, or current smoking.
  • Men were more likely than women to have at least one of the three cardiovascular disease risk factors.
  • From 1999–2000 through 2009–2010, a decrease was observed in the percentage of non-Hispanic white and Mexican-American adults who had at least one of the three risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, this decrease was not found among non-Hispanic black adults.
  • The prevalence of uncontrolled high blood pressure and of uncontrolled high LDL cholesterol declined between 1999–2000 and 2009–2010, but no significant change occurred in the percentage of adults who smoke cigarettes.

The Health of Male Veterans and Nonveterans Aged 25–64: United States, 2007–2010

August 8, 2012 Comments off

The Health of Male Veterans and Nonveterans Aged 25–64: United States, 2007–2010

Source: National Center for Health Statistics

A snapshot view of the health of nonelderly veterans reveals a mixed picture of their health and functioning. Overall, veterans aged 25–64 appear to be in poorer health than nonveterans, although not all differences in health are significant for all age groups. When age differences are examined, only veterans aged 45–54 are significantly more likely than nonveterans to report fair or poor health and serious psychological distress. Other health disadvantages for veterans (e.g., the prevalence of two or more chronic conditions) appear at age 45 and over. Differences in work limitations between veterans and nonveterans are seen beginning at age 35. However, the measures presented here do not reveal major health differences between male veterans and nonveterans aged 25–34.

The health differences that appear at older ages suggest that the effects of military service on health may appear later in life. Veterans also differ from nonveterans in some sociodemographic characteristics, and these characteristics may be related to observed differences in their health and functioning. Veterans are more likely to have health insurance, which may influence their access to health care and the likelihood of being diagnosed with various conditions.

The health measures presented here are not inclusive of all possible differences in health and functioning. Specifically, the measure of mental health in this report, although associated with anxiety disorders and depression, identifies only people with the most severe psychological distress (4–6). Other measures of mental health that capture a wider range of mental disorders might show more differences between veterans and nonveterans.

The sampling universe of NHIS does not include homeless people or the institutionalized population (e.g., people in long-term care facilities or in prison), which excludes some severely ill people (veterans and nonveterans) from our analysis. Addressing the problem of homelessness among veterans is a priority of the Veterans Administration (7).

This analysis is also limited in that it excludes certain other groups. The suffering of younger veterans returning from overseas with significant injuries and stress-related disorders is the focus of increased public attention. However, the number of veterans aged 18–24 included in NHIS was not large enough to support estimates for this age group. Although the percentage of women serving in the military has been steadily increasing, the relatively small numbers of female veterans also precluded their inclusion in this report.

Estimated Pregnancy Rates and Rates of Pregnancy Outcomes for the United States, 1990–2008

June 21, 2012 Comments off

Estimated Pregnancy Rates and Rates of Pregnancy Outcomes for the United States, 1990–2008 (PDF)
Source: National Center for Health Statistics

Objectives
This report presents detailed pregnancy rates for 1990–2008, updating a national series of rates extending since 1976.

Methods
Tabular and graphical data on pregnancy rates by age, race, and Hispanic origin, and by marital status are presented and described.

Results
In 2008, an estimated 6,578,000 pregnancies resulted in 4,248,000 live births, 1,212,000 induced abortions, and 1,118,000 fetal losses. The 2008 pregnancy rate of 105.5 pregnancies per 1,000 women aged 15–44 is 9 percent below the 1990 peak of 115.8. The teen pregnancy rate dropped 40 percent from 1990 to 2008, reaching a historic low of 69.8 per 1,000 women aged 15–19. Pregnancy rates have declined significantly for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic teenagers. Rates in 2008 for non-Hispanic black and Hispanic teenagers were two to three times higher than the rates for non-Hispanic white teenagers. Pregnancy rates for women in their early 20s declined to the lowest level in more than three decades, although the declines have been more modest than for teenagers. Pregnancy rates for women aged 25–29 have changed relatively little since 1990, while rates for women in their 30s and early 40s increased.

Just Released — Health, United States, 2011

May 16, 2012 Comments off

Health, United States, 2011Source: National Center for Health Statistics

  • Compendium of health status, health care resource use, and vital statistics from HHS agencies
  • Annual report of about 500 pages

Osteoporosis or Low Bone Mass at the Femur Neck or Lumbar Spine in Older Adults: United States, 2005–2008

May 6, 2012 Comments off

Osteoporosis or Low Bone Mass at the Femur Neck or Lumbar Spine in Older Adults: United States, 2005–2008
Source: National Center for Health Statistics

Key findings

Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005–2008

  • Nine percent of adults aged 50 years and over had osteoporosis, as defined by the World Health Organization, at either the femur neck or lumbar spine. About one-half had low bone mass at either site, while 48% had normal bone mass at both sites.
  • Estimates of poor skeletal status at the femur neck or lumbar spine when considered alone were not the same as estimates based on the two skeletal sites together because some individuals had the condition at one site but not the other.
  • The prevalence of osteoporosis or low bone mass at either the femur neck or lumbar spine differed by age, sex, and race and ethnicity. The prevalence was higher in women and increased with age. Differences between racial and ethnic groups varied by sex and skeletal status category.

Many current clinical guidelines recommend that assessment of osteoporosis or low bone mass, as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) (1), be based on bone mineral density at either the femur neck region of the proximal femur (hip) or the lumbar spine (2,3). This data brief presents the most recent national data on osteoporosis or low bone mass at either the femur neck or lumbar spine among older adults in the United States population based on these WHO categories. Results are presented by age, sex, and race and ethnicity.

Trends in Asthma Prevalence, Health Care Use, and Mortality in the United States, 2001–2010

May 5, 2012 Comments off

Trends in Asthma Prevalence, Health Care Use, and Mortality in the United States, 2001–2010
Source: National Center for Health Statistics

Key findings

  • Asthma prevalence increased from 7.3% in 2001 to 8.4% in 2010, when 25.7 million persons had asthma.
  • For the period 2008–2010, asthma prevalence was higher among children than adults, and among multiple-race, black, and American Indian or Alaska Native persons than white persons.
  • From 2001 to 2009, health care visits for asthma per 100 persons with asthma declined in primary care settings, while asthma emergency department (ED) visit and hospitalization rates were stable.
  • For the period 2007–2009, black persons had higher rates for asthma ED visits and hospitalizations per 100 persons with asthma than white persons, and a higher asthma death rate per 1,000 persons with asthma. Compared with adults, children had higher rates for asthma primary care and ED visits, similar hospitalization rates, and lower death rates.

Total and High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2010

April 26, 2012 Comments off

Total and High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2010
Source: National Center for Health Statistics

Key findings
Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2010

  • Just over 13% of U.S. adults had high total cholesterol, meeting the Healthy People 2010 objective of 17% or less for high total cholesterol. However, the objective was not achieved by women aged 40 and over.
  • From 1999 through 2010, the percentage of adults aged 20 and over with high total cholesterol declined by 27 percent.
  • Approximately 12% of women and 31% of men had low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the 2009–2010 survey.
  • Overall, more than two-thirds of adults were screened for cholesterol in the preceding 5 years. However, screening rates ranged from 71% in non-Hispanic white women to 50% in Hispanic men. Hispanic men are less likely to be screened than non-Hispanic white or non-Hispanic black men.

High total cholesterol and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol are major risk factors for coronary heart disease, including heart attacks (1–5). To identify persons who may be at risk of developing coronary heart disease, the Adult Treatment Panel of the National Cholesterol Education Program recommends that adults be screened for cholesterol (6). This report presents the most recent prevalence estimates of high total cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol, and cholesterol screening. Trends over the last 12 years for high total cholesterol are also presented. Analysis is based only on measured cholesterol and does not take into account whether medications are taken.

Fertility of Men and Women Aged 15–44 Years in the United States: National Survey of Family Growth, 2006–2010

April 12, 2012 Comments off

Fertility of Men and Women Aged 15–44 Years in the United States: National Survey of Family Growth, 2006–2010 (PDF)
Source: National Center for Health Statistics

Objective—This report presents national estimates of the fertility of men and women aged 15–44 years in the United States in 2006–2010 based on the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). Data are compared with similar measures for 2002.

Methods—Descriptive tables of numbers, percentages, and means are presented and discussed. Data were collected through in-person interviews of a nationally representative sample of the household population aged 15–44 years in the United States between July 2006 and June 2010. The 2006–2010 NSFG sample is comprised of 22,682 respondents including 10,403 men and 12,279 women. The overall response rate for the 2006–2010 NSFG was 77%, 75% for men and 78% for women.

Results—Many of the fertility measures among men and women aged 15–44 based on the 2006–2010 NSFG were generally similar to those reported based on the 2002 NSFG. The mean age at first child’s birth for women was 23 and the mean age at first child’s birth for men was 25. One-half of first births to women were in their 20s and two-thirds of first births were fathered by men who were in their 20s. On average, women aged 15–44 have 1.3 children as of the time of the interview. By age 40, 85% of women had had a birth, and 76% of men had fathered a child. In 2006–2010, 22% of first births to women occurred within cohabiting unions, up from 12% in 2002. These measures differed by Hispanic origin and race and other demographic characteristics.

Trends in Adults Receiving a Recommendation for Exercise or Other Physical Activity From a Physician or Other Health Professional

February 17, 2012 Comments off

Trends in Adults Receiving a Recommendation for Exercise or Other Physical Activity From a Physician or Other Health Professional
Source: National Center for Health Statistics

Key findings
Data from the National Health Interview Survey, 2000, 2005, and 2010

  • In 2010, about one in three adults (32.4%) who had seen a physician or other health professional in the past 12 months had been advised to begin or continue to do exercise or physical activity.
  • Between 2000 and 2010, the percentage of adults receiving advice to exercise increased by about 10 percentage points.
  • Among adults aged 85 and over, the percentage receiving advice to exercise nearly doubled between 2000 (15.3%) and 2010 (28.9%).
  • Receiving advice to exercise increased for adults with hypertension, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes.
  • Adults who were overweight or obese had the largest percentage point increases over the decade 2000–2010 in being advised to exercise.

Smoking and Oral Health in Dentate Adults aged 18–64

February 10, 2012 Comments off

Smoking and Oral Health in Dentate Adults aged 18–64
Source: National Center for Health Statistics

Key findings
Data from the National Health Interview Survey, 2008

  • Current smokers (16%) were twice as likely as former smokers (8%) and four times as likely as never smokers (4%) to have poor oral health status.
  • Current smokers (35%) were almost one and one-half times as likely as former smokers (24%) and more than two times as likely as never smokers (16%) to have had three or more oral health problems.
  • Current smokers (19%) were about twice as likely as former smokers (9%) and never smokers (10%) to have not had a dental visit in more than 5 years or have never had one.
  • Cost was the reason that most adults with an oral health problem did not see a dentist in the past 6 months; 56% of current smokers, 36% of former smokers, and 35% of never smokers could not afford treatment or did not have insurance.

There is a vast body of literature documenting the adverse effects of cigarette smoking on health (1–5). In 2000 the Surgeon General’s report on oral health noted that lifestyle behaviors such as smoking affect oral health as well as general health. It also emphasized the importance of oral health to overall health (6). This report examines differences among current smokers, former smokers, and never smokers in terms of oral health status, number of oral health problems, and the utilization of dental services. The study is limited to dentate adults aged 18–64.

Home Births in the United States, 1990–2009

February 6, 2012 Comments off

Home Births in the United States, 1990–2009
Source: National Center for Health Statistics

Key findings

  • After a decline from 1990 to 2004, the percentage of U.S. births that occurred at home increased by 29%, from 0.56% of births in 2004 to 0.72% in 2009.
  • For non-Hispanic white women, home births increased by 36%, from 0.80% in 2004 to 1.09% in 2009. About 1 in every 90 births for non-Hispanic white women is now a home birth. Home births are less common among women of other racial or ethnic groups.
  • Home births are more common among women aged 35 and over, and among women with several previous children.
  • Home births have a lower risk profile than hospital births, with fewer births to teenagers or unmarried women, and with fewer preterm, low birthweight, and multiple births.
  • The percentage of home births in 2009 varied from a low of 0.2% of births in Louisiana and the District of Columbia, to a high of 2.0% in Oregon and 2.6% in Montana.

NCHS Urban–Rural Classification Scheme for Counties

February 1, 2012 Comments off

NCHS Urban–Rural Classification Scheme for Counties (PDF)
Source: National Center for Education Statistics

Objectives
This report details the National Center for Health Statistics’ (NCHS) development of the 2006 NCHS Urban–Rural Classification Scheme for Counties and provides some examples of how the scheme can be used to describe differences in health measures by urbanization level.

Methods
The 2006 NCHS urban-rural classification scheme classifies all U.S. counties and county-equivalents into six levels—four for metropolitan counties and two for nonmetropolitan counties. The Office of Management and Budget’s delineation of metropolitan and nonmetropolitan counties forms the foundation of the scheme. The NCHS scheme also uses the cut points of the U.S. Department of Agriculture RuralUrban Continuum Codes to subdivide the metropolitan counties based on the population of their metropolitan statistical area (MSA): large, for MSA population of 1 million or more; medium, for MSA population of 250,000–999,999; and small, for MSA population below 250,000. Large metro counties were further separated into large central and large fringe metro categories using classification rules developed by NCHS. Nonmetropolitan counties were assigned to two levels based on the Office of Management and Budget’s designated micropolitan or noncore status. The 2006 scheme was applied to data from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to illustrate its ability to capture health differences by urbanization level.

Results and Conclusions
Application of the 2006 NCHS scheme to NVSS and NHIS data shows that it identifies important health disparities among communities, most notably those for inner city and suburban communities. The design of the NCHS Urban–Rural Classification Scheme for Counties makes it particularly well-suited for assessing and monitoring health differences across the full urbanization continuum.

Health and Access to Care Among Employed and Unemployed Adults: United States, 2009–2010

January 27, 2012 Comments off
Source:  National Center for Health Statistics

Key findings
Data from the National Health Interview Survey, 2009–2010
  • In 2009–2010, 48.1% of unemployed adults aged 18–64 years had health insurance compared with 81.4% of employed adults; among the insured, a higher proportion of the unemployed had public insurance.
  • Unemployed adults had poorer mental and physical health than employed adults; this pattern is found for insured and uninsured adults.
  • Unemployed adults were less likely to receive needed medical care due to cost than the employed in each insurance category.
  • The unemployed were less likely to receive needed prescriptions due to cost than the employed in all insurance categories.
  • Uninsured adults were less likely to receive needed medical care and prescription drugs due to cost than those with public or private insurance, regardless of employment status.

Healthy People 2010 Final Review

October 12, 2011 Comments off

Healthy People 2010 Final Review
Source: National Center for Health Statistics
From press release (PDF):

Today, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) released a progress assessment of the nation’s health goals over the last decade. The report entitled, “Healthy People 2010 Final Review,” determined that Americans had met — or were moving toward meeting — 71 percent of the program’s 2010 targets, including those associated with reducing deaths from coronary heart disease and stroke.

The Healthy People initiative, which aligns itself with several other HHS goals and programs, is grounded in the principle that setting national objectives and monitoring progress can motivate action and improve health. Throughout the United States, health departments at the city, county and state levels use the Healthy People program as a way to track the effectiveness of local health initiatives.

Some of the more promising data released in the assessment revealed that the country met the Healthy People objectives of reducing cholesterol levels, while making minor strides toward reducing smoking rates. As a result, according to the National Vital Statistics System, the U.S. is enjoying a major drop in deaths from heart disease and strokes over the past decade. In other good news, the nation’s overall life expectancy continued to rise and several objectives that track mental health status, treatment, and services met their 2010 targets.

While much progress has been made with regard to most of the 2010 health objectives, it is clear from the Healthy People assessment that the nation still comes up short in a number of critical areas, including efforts to reduce health disparities and the obesity rate.

Over the past decade, health disparities have not changed for approximately 80 percent of the health objectives and have increased for an additional 13 percent. And, the report found that obesity rates increased across all age groups. Among children aged 6-11 years, obesity rates rose by 54.5 percent, and among adolescents aged 12-19 years, the obesity rate rose 63.6 percent. In addition, the proportion of adults who are obese rose by 48 percent.

Health Insurance Coverage: Early Release of Estimates From the National Health Interview Survey, January—March 2011

September 22, 2011 Comments off

Health Insurance Coverage: Early Release of Estimates From the National Health Interview Survey,
January—March 2011

Source: National Center for Health Statistics

Highlights

  • From January through March 2011, 46.5 million persons of all ages (15.3%) were uninsured at the time of interview, 60.5 million (19.8%) had been uninsured for at least part of the year prior to interview, and 34.2 million (11.2%) had been uninsured for more than a year at the time of interview.
  • From January through March 2011, the percentage of children under age 18 years who were uninsured at the time of interview was 6.9%.
  • Among adults aged 19–25, the percentage uninsured at the time of interview decreased from 33.9% (10 million) in 2010 to 30.4% (9.1 million) in the first 3 months of 2011.
  • Private coverage decreased among near poor adults aged 18–64, from 52.6% in 1997 to 36.1% in the first 3 months of 2011. The uninsured rate (40.2%) was higher than the private coverage rate (36.1%) for this population.
  • From January through March 2011, 29.1% of persons under age 65 with private health insurance at the time of interview were enrolled in a high deductible health plan (HDHP), including 8.8% who were enrolled in a consumer-directed health plan (CDHP). More than 50% of persons with a private plan obtained by means other than through employment were enrolled in an HDHP. An estimated 20.7% of persons with private health insurance were in a family with a flexible spending account (FSA) for medical expenses.

Consumption of Sugar Drinks in the United States, 2005–2008

September 3, 2011 Comments off

Consumption of Sugar Drinks in the United States, 2005–2008
Source: National Center for Health Statistics

Key Findings

  • Males consume more sugar drinks than females.
  • Teenagers and young adults consume more sugar drinks than other age groups.
  • Approximately one-half of the U.S. population consumes sugar drinks on any given day.
  • Non-Hispanic black children and adolescents consume more sugar drinks in relation to their overall diet than their Mexican-American counterparts. Non-Hispanic black and Mexican-American adults consume more than non-Hispanic white adults.
  • Low-income persons consume more sugar drinks in relation to their overall diet than those with higher income.
  • Most of the sugar drinks consumed away from home are obtained from stores and not restaurants or schools.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Aged 5–17 Years in the United States, 1998–2009

August 22, 2011 Comments off

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Aged 5–17 Years in the United States, 1998–2009
Source: National Center for Health Statistics

Key findings

  • The percentage of children ever diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) increased from 7% to 9% from 1998–2000 through 2007–2009.
  • ADHD prevalence trends varied by race and ethnicity. Differences between groups narrowed from 1998 through 2009; however, Mexican children had consistently lower
  • ADHD prevalence than other racial or ethnic groups.

  • From 1998 through 2009, ADHD prevalence increased to 10% for children with family income less than 100% of the poverty level and to 11% for those with family income between 100% and 199% of the poverty level.
  • From 1998 through 2009, ADHD prevalence rose to 10% in the Midwest and South regions of the United States.

Nurse Practitioners, Certified Nurse Midwives, and Physician Assistants in Physician Offices

August 19, 2011 Comments off

Nurse Practitioners, Certified Nurse Midwives, and Physician Assistants in Physician Offices
Source: National Center for Health Statistics

Key findings
Data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, 2009

  • In 2009, 49.1% of office-based physicians were in practices that used nurse practitioners (NPs), certified nurse midwives (CNMs), or physician assistants (PAs).
  • Primary care physicians were more likely to have NPs, CNMs, or PAs than physicians of other specialities.
  • Physicians in larger and multi-specialty group practices were more likely to work with NPs, CNMs, or PAs than those in smaller and single-specialty group practices.
  • Older physicians were less likely than middle-aged physicians to be in practices that had NPs, CNMs, or PAs.
  • Physicians in practices with a higher proportion of revenue from Medicaid and a lower proportion from Medicare were more likely to work with NPs, CNMs, or PAs.

Hospital Preparedness for Emergency Response: United States, 2008

June 22, 2011 Comments off

Hospital Preparedness for Emergency Response: United States, 2008 (PDF)
Source: National Center for Health Statistics

Key results

    + Nearly all hospitals had response plans for chemical releases, natural disasters, epidemics, and biological incidents. Preparedness for explosive or incendiary incidents was less frequent than preparedness for other types of incidents.

  • While most hospitals had plans for cancellation of elective procedures and admissions, two-thirds had plans for alternate care areas with beds, staffing, and equipment.
  • One-half of hospitals planned for alternate care areas in inpatient hallways or decommissioned ward space, or for conversion of inpatient units to augment intensive care.
  • One-half of hospitals had adjusted standards of care for allocation of mechanical ventilators for mass casualties.
  • Although over one-half of hospitals had staged epidemic drills, only one-third included mass vaccination or medication distribution.
  • One-half of hospitals planned for advance registration of health care professionals.
  • While most hospitals had memoranda of understanding (MOUs) with other hospitals to transfer adults during an epidemic, fewer hospitals had MOUs for pediatrics and burns. Less than one-half of hospitals accommodated the needs of children and persons with disabilities during a public health emergency.

Wireless Substitution: Early Release of Estimates From the National Health Interview Survey, July-December 2010

June 13, 2011 Comments off

Wireless Substitution: Early Release of Estimates From the National Health Interview Survey, July-December 2010
Source: National Center for Health Statistics

Preliminary results from the July–December 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) indicate that the number of American homes with only wireless telephones continues to grow. Three of every ten American homes (29.7%) had only wireless telephones (also known as cellular telephones, cell phones, or mobile phones) during the last half of 2010—an increase of 3.1 percentage points since the first half of 2010. In addition, nearly one of every six American homes (15.7%) received all or almost all calls on wireless telephones despite having a landline. This report presents the most up-to-date estimates available from the federal government concerning the size and characteristics of these populations.

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