Archive for the ‘U.S. Department of Justice’ Category

Victimizations Not Reported To The Police, 2006-2010

August 17, 2012 Comments off

Victimizations Not Reported To The Police, 2006-2010

Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics

Presents findings, for a five-year period from 2006 to 2010, on the characteristics of crime victimizations that went unreported to police, according to data from the National Crime Victimization Survey. The characteristics examined in this report include the type of crime, whether it involved a weapon or injury, the victim-offender relationship, and demographic characteristics of the victim. For each of the characteristics examined, the report also details victims’ rationale for not reporting to the police, including beliefs that the police would not or could not help, that the crime was not important enough to report, or fear of reprisal or getting the offender into trouble. The report also examines trends from 1994 to 2010 in the types of crime not reported to the police and the reasons victimizations went unreported.

Highlights include the following:

  • From 1994 to 2010, the percentage of serious violent crime—rape or sexual assault, robbery, or aggravated assault—that was not reported to police declined from 50% to 42%.
  • From 2006 to 2010, the highest percentages of unreported crime were among household theft (67%) and rape or sexual assault (65%) victimizations, while the lowest percentage was among motor vehicle theft (17%) victimizations.
  • From 2006 to 2010, a greater percentage of victimizations perpetrated by someone the victim knew well (62%) went unreported to police, compared to victimizations committed by a stranger (51%).

Ten Truths That Matter When Working With Justice Involved Women

August 7, 2012 Comments off

Ten Truths That Matter When Working With Justice Involved Women (PDF)
Source: National Resource Center on Justice Involved Women

This document reviews ten truths about justice involved women—gleaned from the research over the last few decadesthat must be recognized if we are to successfully manage this population, achieve greater reductions in recidivism, and improve public safety outcomes. It is our hope that by understanding these truths, criminal justice policymakers and practitioners will be more aware of gender differences and take steps to enhance their approaches to managing justice involved women.

Solving Sexual Assaults: Finding Answers Through Research

July 24, 2012 Comments off

Solving Sexual Assaults: Finding Answers Through Research (PDF)
Source: National Institute of Justice Journal

It has been a headline-making story for the past few years: thousands of sexual assault evidence kits — untested — in police storage. In a few jurisdictions, lawmakers have responded to the outcry from victims and victim advocates by mandating that kits in all alleged sexual assaults be DNA tested.

But what do we know, empirically, about the value of DNA testing large numbers of sexual assault kits (SAKs) that have long been held in police property rooms? And what do we know, empirically, about the crime-solving utility of testing kits in all alleged sexual assaults?

One thing we know is that the probative value of forensic evidence in any crime, including sexual assault, depends largely on the circumstances of the case — pivotal in one, less important in another. If the perpetrator is a stranger to the victim, a DNA profile can be crucial in identifying the suspect and adjudicating the case. However, at least half of sexual assault victims know the perpetrator’s identity; if he admits sexual contact but claims it was consensual, DNA evidence may be of questionable value in adjudicating the case — although it could have value in uncovering serial so-called “acquaintance” rapes. And, finally, when sexual assault is perpetrated on a child, DNA evidence is vital in determining that a crime occurred.

Immigration Offenders In The Federal Justice System, 2010

July 20, 2012 Comments off

Immigration Offenders In The Federal Justice System, 2010

Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics

Presents data on criminal and civil immigration violations handled by the federal justice system over the last decade. The report examines the various ways immigration violator cases are processed based on the type of offense, the suspect’s prior record, and the district in which the suspect is apprehended. Tables describe the demographic characteristics of criminal immigration offenders, adjudication and sentencing outcomes, and the number of criminal immigration offenders returning to federal prison within 3 years of release from previous federal imprisonment. Data in the report come from the Federal Justice Statistics Program (FJSP) and from documentation published by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the Executive Office for Immigration Review (EOIR).

Highlights include the following:

  • Apprehensions for immigration violations peaked at 1.8 million in 2000 but dropped to 516,992 in 2010—the lowest level since 1972.
  • The most common immigration offense charged in U.S. district court in 2010 was illegal reentry (81%), followed by alien smuggling (12%), misuse of visas (6%) and illegal entry (1%).
  • Eighty-one percent of immigration defendants who were convicted in U. S. district court received a prison sentence in 2010. The median prison term imposed was 15 months.

In Search of a Job: Criminal Records as Barriers to Employment

July 7, 2012 Comments off

In Search of a Job: Criminal Records as Barriers to Employment
Source: National Institute of Justice

A new study shows that nearly one-third of American adults have been arrested by age 23.[ This record will keep many people from obtaining employment, even if they have paid their dues, are qualified for the job and are unlikely to reoffend. At the same time, it is the chance at a job that offers hope for people involved in the criminal justice system, as we know from research that stable employment is an important predictor of successful re-entry and desistance from crime.

Criminal records run the gamut — from one-time arrests where charges are dropped, to lengthy, serious and violent criminal histories. Most arrests are for relatively minor or nonviolent offenses. Among the nearly 14 million arrests recorded in 2009, only 4 percent were considered among the most serious violent crimes (which include murder, rape, robbery and aggravated assault).

Another 10 percent of all arrests were for simple assault; these do not involve a weapon or aggravated injury but often include domestic violence and intimate partner violence. The remainder of the arrests in 2009 were for:

  • Property crimes, which accounted for 18 percent of arrests. These include burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, arson, vandalism, stolen property, forgery and counterfeiting, fraud and embezzlement.
  • Drug offenses, which accounted for 12 percent of arrests. These include production, distribution or use of controlled substances.
  • Other offenses, which accounted for 56 percent of all arrests. These include disorderly conduct, drunkenness, prostitution, vagrancy, loitering, driving under the influence and weapons violations.

Although many of these “other” offenses are for behaviors that harm the community, they do not constitute the most serious violent offenses of murder, rape, robbery and aggravated assault.

Furthermore, what is often forgotten is that many people who have been arrested — and, therefore, technically have a criminal record that shows up on a background check — were never convicted of a crime. This is true not only among those charged with minor crimes, but also for many individuals arrested for serious offenses. A snapshot of felony filings in the 75 largest counties, for example, showed that approximately one-third of felony arrests did not lead to conviction.

Identifying Challenges to Improve the Investigation and Prosecution of State and Local Human Trafficking Cases

June 27, 2012 Comments off

Identifying Challenges to Improve the Investigation and Prosecution of State and Local Human Trafficking Cases (PDF)
Source: National Criminal Justice Reference Service

The federal government has taken a number of steps to facilitate state and local responses to the problem of human trafficking. The DOJ publicly tasked the over 17,000 municipal, county and state law enforcement agencies responsible for carrying out routine policing functions of local communities to “be the eyes and ears for recognizing, uncovering and responding to circumstances that may appear to be a routine street crime, but may ultimately turn out to be a human trafficking case” (U.S. Department of Justice, 2004: 5). To support the antitrafficking efforts of this large and diverse pool of local law enforcement agencies, the federal government devoted significant resources to support local law enforcement responses to human trafficking through the funding of multi-agency task forces and police training.

Additionally, in 2004 the DOJ developed the Model State Anti-Trafficking Criminal Statute, which was widely disseminated as the first model state law. The DOJ model legislation covered both “labor,” which absent coercion or force would normally be lawful employment, and “services,” which include unlawful activities such as prostitution. The DOJ model law also criminalized conditions where children are induced into prostitution without the necessity of proving force, fraud or coercion, a departure from most existing state prostitution statutes (Farrell, 2007). However, the model statute included minimal victim service provisions and was confusing for states to implement because it categorized commercial sex acts as “services. These deficiencies prompted human trafficking advocacy groups to develop and publicize alternative model legislation templates (Polaris Project, 2004, 2006, 2010; Freedom Network/Global Rights, 2005), key provisions of which have been adopted by numerous state legislatures.

In the eleven years following the passage of the TVPA, forty-nine states have passed state legislation criminalizing human trafficking and some states have mandated more comprehensive mechanism such as police training, victim services and data collection to improve local identification of victims and response to the crime (Polaris Project, 2011; Center for Women Policy 2011). State anti-trafficking laws differ widely in both the definition of what actions constitute a human trafficking crime and the focus of the state response to the problem. While a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of various legal mechanisms in state legislation is beyond the scope of this study (see Richard 2004; Farrell 2007; Tangaho, 2008; Center for Women Policy Studies, 2011, Polaris Project, 2011 for assessments of state human trafficking legislation), Appendix A provides a breakdown of state anti-trafficking laws and their specific provisions.

See also: National Overview of Prostitution and Sex Trafficking Demand Reduction Efforts, Final Report (PDF)

Post-Conviction DNA Testing and Wrongful Conviction

June 27, 2012 Comments off

Post-Conviction DNA Testing and Wrongful Conviction (PDF)
Source: National Criminal Justice Reference Service

Forensic evidence, particularly fingerprints, has been used for more than a century to aid law enforcement investigations. However, only in the past decade has the use of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) testing to include or eliminate suspects and exonerate those convicted in serious crimes become relatively common. DNA evidence is said to be individualizing because of its power to link a person to a criminal incident. And unlike fingerprints, the probability that questioned evidence from a crime scene matches DNA from a known person can be calculated. In past decades, the investigation of serious crimes that led to a conviction typically did not use individualizing forensic biological evidence such as DNA. Thus, it is possible that some individuals convicted in serious person crimes (sexual assault and homicide) would have been eliminated by a forensic analysis more discriminating than what was available at the time. To estimate the rate of such possible wrongful convictions and to identify their predictors, the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) in the U.S. Department of Justice funded retrospective DNA testing of physical evidence in cases where there was a conviction of a sexual assault or homicide and physical evidence was retained.

Classifying Adult Probationers by Forecasting Future Offending

June 17, 2012 Comments off

Classifying Adult Probationers by Forecasting Future Offending (PDF)
Source: National Criminal Justice Reference Service

Random forest modeling techniques represent an improvement over the methodologies of traditional risk prediction instruments. Random forests allow for the inclusion of a large number of predictors, the use of a variety of different data sources, the expansion of assessments beyond binary outcomes, and taking the costs of different types of forecasting errors into account when constructing a new model. This study explores the application of random forest statistical learning techniques to a criminal risk forecasting system, which is now used to classify adult probationers by the level of risk they pose to the community.

The project principally focused upon creating a risk prediction tool within a partnership between University-based researchers and Philadelphia’s Adult Probation and Parole Department (APPD). This report details the model building process, including an explanation of the random forest procedures, and sets out the issues in data management and in policy considerations that are associated with creating a prediction tool. The importance of developing strong researcherpractitioner partnerships, especially with regard to tailoring the prediction tool to real-world concerns, is also considered.

The prediction models developed as a part of this project have been used since 2009 to assess all incoming probation and parole cases. Each risk prediction is then used to assign offenders to risk-stratified supervision divisions. This report discusses the development and accuracy of the three generations of models that have been employed to make these predictions, as well as the salient features of each iteration. For the most recent version of the model, the influences of major predictor variables are discussed, with a focus on those that were most powerful in the Philadelphia sample. Additionally, the predictions of the three models are also validated using a sample of cases from 2001, a cohort not used to build any of the prediction models. The long-term offending patterns of these 2001 offenders, with regard to their assessed risk level, are also considered. Finally, suggestions and step-by-step instructions are offered for practitioners seeking to build a similar prediction instrument for use in a wide variety of criminal justice settings.

As a matter of policy, criminal sanctions that are encompassed under the umbrella of community corrections have become an increasingly prevalent punishment option. Given resource constraints, as well as concerns about public safety, statistical risk assessment tools – such as the one developed here – have begun to take increasingly prominent roles in determining levels of supervision. This report, and the partnership supporting it, highlights the promises and potential of the methodology.

FBI Releases Preliminary Annual Crime Statistics for 2011

June 15, 2012 Comments off

FBI Releases Preliminary Annual Crime Statistics for 2011
Source: Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)

According to the FBI’s Preliminary Annual Uniform Crime Report released today, the nation experienced a 4.0 percent decrease in the number of violent crimes and a 0.8 percent decline in the number of property crimes in 2011 when compared with data from 2010. The report is based on information the FBI gathered from 14,009 law enforcement agencies that submitted six to 12 comparable months of data for both 2010 and 2011.

+ Preliminary Annual Uniform Crime Report, January-December, 2011

FBI Records — The Vault: Watergate

June 15, 2012 Comments off

The Vault: Watergate
Source: Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)

On June 17, 1972, several people broke into the Democratic National Committee Headquarters; they were discovered by an on-site guard and were arrested by local police. Subsequent investigations by the FBI, Congress, and the media showed that these intruders were connected to the campaign staff of President Richard Nixon. The White House under Nixon worked to cover-up this connection, and subsequent revelations of the cover-up led to Nixon’s impeachment and resignation in 1974. These files, released many years ago, document the FBI’s investigation into the break-in and related issues between 1972 and 1979.

Sexual Assault Kit Backlog Study

June 14, 2012 Comments off

Sexual Assault Kit Backlog Study (PDF)
Source: National Criminal Justice Reference Service

Sexual assault is one of the most serious crimes facing society and, over the past several decades, increasing attention has been paid to the proper collection of physical evidence from victims to document and reconstruct the crime, to identify the assailant, and to aid in the prosecution of the assailant. When victims report such offenses to the police and are examined at hospitals, medical personnel employ sexual assault kits and accompanying protocols to guide the collection of evidence from the victim. Sexual assault kit (SAK) report forms also record important information from the victim about activities prior to, during and after the assault. Given the likely transfer of biological secretions in such crimes, sexual assault kits and DNA evidence have the power to verify the crime and pinpoint the identity of the assailant. The probative value of such scientific evidence, however, depends largely on the circumstances of the particular case, being pivotal in one instance and less important in another.

Although law enforcement agencies and hospitals have greatly improved and expanded procedures to gather sexual assault kit evidence, scientific resources and procedures to test such evidence have not kept pace. The National Institute of Justice staff, researchers and investigative journalists have uncovered the fact that backlogged and untested sexual assault kits (SAKs) are a major problem facing forensic crime laboratories and law enforcement agencies throughout the United States. The combined untested SAKs from the Los Angeles Sheriff’s Department (LASD) and Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) reached 10,895 cases in the fall of 2008. As the result of growing public concern, Human Rights Watch undertook a study in Los Angeles to document reasons behind the accumulation of these untested kits and found a number of organizational and resource deficiencies throughout the city and county. They were not crime laboratory backlogs per se but were untested kits held in police property rooms in cold storage, where investigators and prosecutors had not requested that the SAK be tested. In 2009, however, the chief executives of Los Angles city and county law enforcement agencies announced that all backlogged kits would be tested, using outside private DNA testing laboratories.

AMBER Alert — Best Practices for Public Information Officers

May 27, 2012 Comments off

AMBER Alert — Best Practices for Public Information Officers (PDF)
Source: National Criminal Justice Reference Service

The success of an AMBER Alert is often measured by how quickly and timely a public Alert can be issued. Re­ search has shown that when citi­zens are aware a reliable mecha­nism exists to help locate abduct­ed children, and when they view their role as both worthy and ef­fective, they willingly serve as thousands of additional eyes and ears on behalf of law enforcement (Burns and Crawford, 1999; Zgoba, 2004; Rothe and Muzzatti, 2004).

Additional research has shown that among missing child cases ending in homicide, the murder usually occurs within the first three hours following the abduc­tion (Hanfland, Keppel, and Weis, 1997). The AMBER Alert program works because citizens know what to look for, who to contact, and what is at stake. AMBER Alert pro­vides both a dependable method for helping law enforcement lo­ cate an abducted child and a program goal that is widely per­ceived as both worthwhile and noble. Quite simply, AMBER Alert is a model program for the public.

AMBER Alert systems work best when all component agencies/ organizations function in a smooth and consistent manner. The effectiveness of the law en­forcement agency’s public infor­ mation operations will be enhanced by strong leadership and direction based on clear departmental policies and procedures.

Sexual Victimization Reported By Former State Prisoners, 2008

May 27, 2012 Comments off

Sexual Victimization Reported By Former State Prisoners, 2008
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics

Presents data on sexual victimization experienced by former state prisoners during their prior term of incarceration, including any time served in a local jail, state prison, or postrelease community-correctional facility. This report is based on data from the first-ever National Former Prisoner Survey, conducted between January 2008 and October 2008. The report provides detailed information on the experiences of persons age 18 or older who were under active supervision following their release from custody. It provides data on the prevalence of sexual victimization while incarcerated, by the type of victimization and sex of former inmate. The report also examines individual-level and facility-level characteristics that may be correlated with sexual victimization and describes the circumstances surrounding victimization. It provides details on the post-release responses of victims to sexual victimization, HIV rates of victims, and information on current employment status, housing, and living arrangements.

Highlights include the following:

  • An estimated 9.6% of former state prisoners reported one or more incidents of sexual victimization during the most recent period of incarceration in a jail, prison, and postrelease community-treatment facility.
  • Among all former state prisoners, 1.8% reported experiencing one or more incidents while in a local jail, 7.5% while in a state prison, and 0.1% while in a postrelease community-treatment facility.
  • About 5.4% of former state prisoners reported an incident that involved another inmate. An estimated 3.7% of former prisoners said they were forced or pressured to have nonconsensual sex with another inmate, including manual stimulation and oral, anal, or vaginal penetration.
  • About 5.3% of former state prisoners reported an incident that involved facility staff. An estimated 1.2% of former prisoners reported that they unwillingly had sex or sexual contact with facility staff, and 4.6% reported that they “willingly” had sex or sexual contact with staff.

Greening Corrections Technology Guidebook

May 24, 2012 Comments off

Greening Corrections Technology Guidebook (PDF)
Source: National Institute of Justice

Greening Corrections Technology Guidebook was developed for the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) based on a recommendation from its Institutional Corrections Technology Working Group (TWG).The TWG, which consists of leaders from correctional agencies across the country, has recognized the growing importance of greening initiatives.

This guidebook provides correctional administrators with a brief, yet comprehensive and informative, view of sustainability-oriented green technologies. It reviews green technologies’ evolving role in correctional institutions and presents issues to consider when acquiring and implementing green technologies to reduce costs and increase the efficiency of resource use. It also addresses the opportunities and challenges involved in selecting and implementing green technologies in correctional settings.

The guidebook has seven chapters that provide information and insight into specific types of green tech- nologies.The authors selected these seven topical areas because they include most — although not all — of the green technologies in use in corrections in 2011. Subsections on future trends indicate possible additions and enhancements to the field.

Each chapter contains lists of specific technologies, including well-established and more traditional exam- ples, as well as emerging technologies that have proven effective in saving money and increasing the efficiency of resource use while protecting public safety and staff security.

Justice Department Study Reveals School Officials More Likely to Learn of Child Victimization Than Police or Medical Authorities

April 26, 2012 Comments off

Justice Department Study Reveals School Officials More Likely to Learn of Child Victimization Than Police or Medical Authorities (PDF)
Source: Office of Justice Programs (U.S. Department of Justice)

Acting Associate Attorney General Tony West today announced the release of Justice Department research examining how authorities learn about child victimization. Acting Associate Attorney General West discussed the findings today in Detroit at the final hearing of the National Task Force on Children Exposed to Violence. The task force, a key part of the Attorney General’s Defending Childhood Initiative, will present policy recommendations to address children’s exposure to violence in a report to the Attorney General in late 2012.

According to the research, school officials knew about victimization episodes more often (42 percent) than police (13 percent) or medical personnel (2 percent). Police were the most likely to know about kidnapping, neglect and sexual abuse by an adult. School, police and medical authorities knew about a majority of serious victimizations, including incidents of sexual abuse by an adult, gang assaults and kidnappings, but were mostly unaware of other kinds of serious victimizations, such as dating violence, rape and attempted rape.

+ Full Report (PDF)

A More Efficient Means to Collect & Process Reference DNA Samples

April 12, 2012 Comments off
Source:  National Institute of Justice
Federal funding made available by the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) through the DNA Initiative helped states and local governments significantly increase the capacity of their DNA laboratories between 2005 and 2008 [2] . At the same time, the demand for DNA testing continues to rise, thus outweighing the capacity of some crime laboratories to process the increased number of samples being received. The demand is coming from two primary sources: (1) the increased amount of DNA evidence that is collected in criminal cases and (2) the expanded effort to collect DNA samples from convicted felons and arrested persons.
All states and the federal government have laws that require collecting DNA from convicted offenders. The federal government also requires collecting DNA from arrestees, a trend rapidly growing in many states. With nearly every state pursuing legislative expansion of their Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) databases, the need to implement the most efficient DNA testing methods possible is paramount. In addition, with the current economic situation affecting most every state, it is equally imperative to develop a cost effective means of performing DNA analysis on these samples. The Oklahoma State Bureau of Investigation (OSBI) has proposed a research study that will provide a solution to both of these needs.
The objective of this research project was 1) to implement a new DNA buccal collection kit that is universal in use, provides a higher success rate on the first analysis attempt, all at a significant reduction in cost, and 2) develop a technique to process buccal swabs using the Identifiler® Direct amplification kit. This kit eliminates the need for the extraction step in the DNA analysis process, but is specifically designed for use on FTA® cards.

See also:  Tools for Improving the Quality of Aged, Degraded, Damaged, or Otherwise Compromised DNA Evidence (PDF)

CRS — Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2013 Appropriations

April 3, 2012 Comments off

Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies: FY2013 Appropriations (PDF)
Source: Congressional Research Service (via Federation of American Scientists)

On February 13, 2012, President Obama submitted his FY2013 budget to Congress. The Administration requests a total of $62.076 billion for the agencies and bureaus funded as a part of the annual Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies (CJS) appropriations bill. The Administration’s request includes $7.978 billion for the Department of Commerce, $28.079 billion for the Department of Justice, $25.090 billion for the science agencies, and $929.2 million for the related agencies. The FY2013 request for CJS is 1.9% greater than the FY2012 appropriation of $60.910 billion.

On November 18, 2011, President Obama signed into law the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2012 (P.L. 112-55), which included the Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2012 (Division B). The act included $60.910 billion for CJS, of which $7.808 billion was for the Department of Commerce, $27.408 billion was for the Department of Justice, $24.838 billion was for the science agencies, and $856.6 million was for the related agencies.
This report will track and describe actions taken by the Administration and Congress to provide FY2013 appropriations for CJS accounts. It also provides an overview of FY2012 appropriations for agencies and bureaus funded as a part of the annual appropriation for CJS.

The source for the FY2012-enacted amounts is the conference report for the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2012 (P.L. 112-55, H.Rept. 112-284). FY2013-requested amounts were taken from the congressional budget submissions for the Department of Commerce, the Department of Justice, the Executive Office of the President, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Science Foundation, and the appendix to the Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2013.

Jail Resource Management

April 1, 2012 Comments off

Jail Resource Management (PDF)
Source: National Institute of Corrections

The goal of this training program is to provide participants with the administrative tools necessary to assess facility needs, mange their budget, identify funding
options and request funding from their parent agency.

FBI Releases Bank Crime Statistics for Third Quarter of 2011

March 31, 2012 Comments off

FBI Releases Bank Crime Statistics for Third Quarter of 2011
Source: Federal Bureau of Investigation

During the third quarter of 2011, there were 1,094 reported violations of the Federal Bank Robbery and Incidental Crimes Statue, a decrease from the 1,325 reported violations in the same quarter of 2010.1 According to statistics released today by the FBI, there were 1,081 robberies, 11 burglaries, two larcenies, and one extortion of a financial institution2 reported between July 1, 2011 and September 30, 2011.

Highlights of the report include:

  • Loot was taken in 89 percent of the incidents, totaling more than $9.3 million.
  • Of the loot taken, 25 percent of it, or more than $1.9 million, was recovered and returned to financial institutions.
  • Bank crimes most frequently occurred on Friday. Regardless of the day, the time frame when bank crimes occurred most frequently was between 9:00 a.m. and 11:00 a.m.
  • Acts of violence were committed in 5 percent of the incidents, resulting in 18 injuries, three deaths, and four persons taken hostage.3
  • Demand notes4 were the most common modus operandi used.
  • Most violations occurred in the Western region of the U.S., with 375 reported incidents.

+ Full Report

Probation And Parole In The United States, 2010

February 10, 2012 Comments off

Probation And Parole In The United States, 2010
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics

Presents statistics about adult offenders under community supervision while on probation or parole during 2010. It examines changes in community supervision populations during 2010 and prior years. The report documents a slowing of growth in these populations over time and declines in recent years. The report also provides statistics on the number of offenders entering and exiting probation and parole and the turnover of these populations. It describes the outcomes of supervision, including the rate at which probationers or parolees completed the terms of their supervision or were incarcerated for violating the conditions of supervision. Appendix tables in the report include detailed information by jurisdiction, such as entries and exits by type; sex, race, and Hispanic origin of offenders; offense type; supervision status; and Global Positioning System (GPS) offender tracking, including sex offenders.

Highlights include the following:

  • The number of adult offenders under community supervision declined by 66,700 during 2010 to reach 4,887,900 offenders at yearend 2010.
  • At yearend 2010, about 4,055,500 adults were on probation, and during 2010 more than 4.4 million adults moved onto or off probation.
  • At yearend 2010, an estimated 840,700 adults were on parole, and about 1.1 million offenders moved onto or off parole during the year. Both parole entries (down 0.5%) and exits (down 1.8%) declined during 2010.

+ Full Report (PDF)


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